20 research outputs found

    Evidence from Strandings for Geomagnetic Sensitivity in Cetaceans

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    We tested the hypothesis that cetaceans use weak anomalies in the geomagnetic field as cues for orientation, navigation and/or piloting. Using the positions of 212 stranding events of live animals in the Smith sonian compilation which fall within the boundaries of the USGS East-Coast Aeromagnetic Survey, we found that there are highly significant tendencies for cetaceans to beach themselves near coastal locations with local magnetic minima. Monte-Carlo simulations confirm the significance of these effects. These results suggest that cetaceans have a magnetic sensory systemcomparable to that in other migratory and homing animals, and predict that the magnetic topography and in particular the marine magnetic lineations may play an important role in guiding long-distance migration. The ‘map’ sense of migratoryanimals may therefore be largely based on a simple strategy of following paths of local magnetic minima and avoiding magnetic gradients

    Evidence that fin whales respond to the geomagnetic field during migration

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    We challenge the hypothesis that fin whales use a magnetic sense to guide migration by testing for associations between geophysical parameters and the positions where fin whales were observed over the continental shelf off the northeastern United States. Monte Carlo simulations estimated the probability that the distribution of fin whale sighting was random with respect to bottom depth, bottom slope and the intensity and gradient of the geomagnetic field. The simulations demonstrated no overall association of sighting positions with any of these four geophysical parameters. Analysis of the data by season, however, demonstrated statistically reliable associations of sighting positions with areas of low geomagnetic intensity and gradient in winter and fall, respectively, but no association of sighting positions with bathymetric parameters in any season. An attempt to focus on migrating animals by excluding those observed feeding confirmed the associations of sighting positions with low geomagnetic intensity and gradient in winter and fall, respectively, and revealed additional associations with low geomagnetic gradients in winter and spring. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fin whales, and perhaps other mysticete species, possess a magnetic sense that they use to guide migration

    Whaling dispute continues

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    All Our Babies Cohort Study: recruitment of a cohort to predict women at risk of preterm birth through the examination of gene expression profiles and the environment

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for preterm birth include a personal or familial history of preterm delivery, ethnicity and low socioeconomic status yet the ability to predict preterm delivery before the onset of preterm labour evades clinical practice. Evidence suggests that genetics may play a role in the multi-factorial pathophysiology of preterm birth. The All Our Babies Study is an on-going community based longitudinal cohort study that was designed to establish a cohort of women to investigate how a women's genetics and environment contribute to the pathophysiology of preterm birth. Specifically this study will examine the predictive potential of maternal leukocytes for predicting preterm birth in non-labouring women through the examination of gene expression profiles and gene-environment interactions.</p> <p>Methods/Design</p> <p>Collaborations have been established between clinical lab services, the provincial health service provider and researchers to create an interdisciplinary study design for the All Our Babies Study. A birth cohort of 2000 women has been established to address this research question. Women provide informed consent for blood sample collection, linkage to medical records and complete questionnaires related to prenatal health, service utilization, social support, emotional and physical health, demographics, and breast and infant feeding. Maternal blood samples are collected in PAXgeneℱ RNA tubes between 18-22 and 28-32 weeks gestation for transcriptomic analyses.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>The All Our Babies Study is an example of how investment in clinical-academic-community partnerships can improve research efficiency and accelerate the recruitment and data collection phases of a study. Establishing these partnerships during the study design phase and maintaining these relationships through the duration of the study provides the unique opportunity to investigate the multi-causal factors of preterm birth. The overall All Our Babies Study results can potentially lead to healthier pregnancies, mothers, infants and children.</p

    Proceedings of the 3rd Biennial Conference of the Society for Implementation Research Collaboration (SIRC) 2015: advancing efficient methodologies through community partnerships and team science

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    It is well documented that the majority of adults, children and families in need of evidence-based behavioral health interventionsi do not receive them [1, 2] and that few robust empirically supported methods for implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) exist. The Society for Implementation Research Collaboration (SIRC) represents a burgeoning effort to advance the innovation and rigor of implementation research and is uniquely focused on bringing together researchers and stakeholders committed to evaluating the implementation of complex evidence-based behavioral health interventions. Through its diverse activities and membership, SIRC aims to foster the promise of implementation research to better serve the behavioral health needs of the population by identifying rigorous, relevant, and efficient strategies that successfully transfer scientific evidence to clinical knowledge for use in real world settings [3]. SIRC began as a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded conference series in 2010 (previously titled the “Seattle Implementation Research Conference”; $150,000 USD for 3 conferences in 2011, 2013, and 2015) with the recognition that there were multiple researchers and stakeholdersi working in parallel on innovative implementation science projects in behavioral health, but that formal channels for communicating and collaborating with one another were relatively unavailable. There was a significant need for a forum within which implementation researchers and stakeholders could learn from one another, refine approaches to science and practice, and develop an implementation research agenda using common measures, methods, and research principles to improve both the frequency and quality with which behavioral health treatment implementation is evaluated. SIRC’s membership growth is a testament to this identified need with more than 1000 members from 2011 to the present.ii SIRC’s primary objectives are to: (1) foster communication and collaboration across diverse groups, including implementation researchers, intermediariesi, as well as community stakeholders (SIRC uses the term “EBP champions” for these groups) – and to do so across multiple career levels (e.g., students, early career faculty, established investigators); and (2) enhance and disseminate rigorous measures and methodologies for implementing EBPs and evaluating EBP implementation efforts. These objectives are well aligned with Glasgow and colleagues’ [4] five core tenets deemed critical for advancing implementation science: collaboration, efficiency and speed, rigor and relevance, improved capacity, and cumulative knowledge. SIRC advances these objectives and tenets through in-person conferences, which bring together multidisciplinary implementation researchers and those implementing evidence-based behavioral health interventions in the community to share their work and create professional connections and collaborations

    A Candidate Magnetic Sense Organ in the Yellowfin Tuna, Thunnus albacares

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    Single-domain magnetite crystals have been isolated and characterized from tissue located in a sinus within the dermethmoid bone of the skull of the yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares. Their chemical composition, narrow size distribution, and distinctive crystal morphology indicate that these crystals are biochemical precipitates. Experiments on the interaction between particles reveal the organization of the particles in situ and suggest a possible form for candidate magnetoreceptor organelles. The consistent localization of such particles with similar arrangement within the dermethmoids of this and other pelagic fishes suggests that the ethmoid region is a possible location for a vertebrate magnetic sense organ

    Temporal weighting functions for interaural time and level differences. II. The effect of binaurally synchronous temporal jitter

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    Recent work has demonstrated that sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITD) carried by high-rate cochlear implant pulse trains or analogous acoustic signals can be enhanced by imposing random temporal variation on the stimulus rate [see Goupellet al. (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126, 2511–2521]. The present study characterized the effect of such “temporal jitter” on normal-hearing listeners’ weighting of ITD and interaural level differences (ILD) applied to brief trains of Gabor clicks (4 kHz center frequency) presented at nominal interclick intervals (ICI) of 1.25 and 2.5 ms. Lateral discrimination judgments were evaluated on the basis of the ITD or ILD carried by individual clicks in each train. Random perturbation of the ICI significantly reduced listeners’ weighting of onset cues for both ITD and ILD discrimination compared to corresponding isochronous conditions, consistent with enhanced sensitivity to post-onset binaural cues in jittered stimuli, although the reduction of onset weighting was not statistically significant at 1.25 ms ICI. An additional analysis suggested greater weighting of ITD or ILD presented following lengthened versus shortened ICI, although weights for such “gaps” and “squeezes” were comparable to other post-onset weights. Results are discussed in terms of binaural information available in jittered versus isochronous stimuli

    Temporal weighting of interaural time and level differences in high-rate click trains

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    Temporal weighting functions (TWFs), quantifying sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITD) and interaural level differences (ILD) over the duration of brief stimuli, were measured in 6 normal hearing subjects using trains of 16 Gabor clicks centered at 4 kHz presented dichotically at 4 rates [inter-click intervals (ICI) of 10, 5, 2.5, and 1.25 ms]. Random ITD or ILD were imposed independently on each click in the train in separate conditions. The subject’s task was to discriminate the lateral position of the click train (“left” or “right”). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was then used to quantify the effectiveness or “weight” of each click according to individual click ITD or ILD. Although individual differences were evident, onset cues appeared to dominate at high rates. Onset dominance was apparent for both ITD and ILD at 1.25 ms ICI and for ITD at 2.5 ms ICI, but for neither cue at 5 or 10 ms ICI. Onset dominance was greater on average for ITD than ILD, although TWFs were qualitatively similar for the two cues. No evidence was found for “upweighting” of late-arriving ILD [Stecker, G. C., and Hafter, E. R. (2009), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 3914–3924]

    Genomic Landscape of Angiosarcoma: A Targeted and Immunotherapy Biomarker Analysis

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    We performed a comprehensive analysis of angiosarcoma (AS) genomic biomarkers and their associations with the site of origin. We aimed to describe the genomic landscape of AS in a cohort of 143 cases of AS profiled by Caris Life Sciences. Data of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) with a 592 gene panel was available for the entire cohort. Fifty-three cases had data of Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) which we used to study the microenvironment phenotype. Immuno-therapy (IO) response biomarkers: Tumor Mutation Burden (TMB), Microsatellite Instability (MSI) and PD-L1 status were included. IO-response markers were present in 36.4% of the cohort and in 65% of head and neck AS (H/N-AS) (p&lt;0.0001). H/N-AS cases had predominantly muta-tions in TP53 (50.0%, p=0.0004), POT1 (40.5%, p&lt;0.0001) and ARID1A (33.3%, p=0.5875). In breast AS, leading alterations were MYC amplification (63.3%, p&lt;0.0001), HRAS (16.1%, p=0.0377), and PI3KCA (16.1%, p=0.2352). A microenvironment with a high immune signature, associated with better response to IO, was present in 13% of the cases. This signature was evenly distributed among different primary sites. We found that the molecular biology for AS varies significantly according to the primary site. Our findings can facilitate the design and optimiza-tion of therapeutic strategies for AS to overcome resistance to IO and targeted therapies.</jats:p