137 research outputs found

    predictive value of resistive index in graft survival after kidney transplant

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    Introduction: The intrarenal resistance index (RI) is a calculated parameter for the assessment of the status of the graft during the follow-up ultrasound of the transplanted kidney. Currently it is still unclear the predictive value of RI, also in function of the time. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the RI and the graft survival (GS) and the overall survival (OS) after transplantation. We evaluated 268 patients transplanted between 2003 and 2011, the mean followup was 73 months (12-136). The RI was evaluated at 8 days, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years. The ROC analysis was used to calculate the predictive value of RI and the Kaplan Mayer curves was used to evaluated the OS and PS. Results: The ROC analysis, correlated to the GS, identified a value of RI equal to 0.75 as a cut-off. All patients was stratified according to the RI at 8 days (RI ≤ 0,75: 212 vs RI > 0.75: 56), at 6 months (RI ≤ 0.75: 237 vs RI > 0.75: 31), at 1 year (RI ≤ 0.75: 229 vs RI > 0.75: 39) and at 3 years (RI ≤ 0.75: 224 vs RI > 0.75: 44). The RI showed statistically significant differences between the two groups in favor of those who had an RI ≤ 0.75 only at 8 days and at 6 moths (p = 0.0078 and p = 0.02 to 8 days to 6 months) on the GS. On the contrary, we observed that the RI estimated at 1 year and 3 years has not correlated with the GS. The same RI cut-off was correlate with PS after transplantation. We observed that there are no correlations between the RI and OS. Conclusions: The RI proved to be a good prognostic factor on survival organ when it was evaluated in the first months of follow- up after transplantation. This parameter does not appear, however, correlate with OS of the transplanted subject

    Prerectal-transperineal approach for treatment of recurrent vesico-urethral anastomotic stenosis after radical prostatectomy

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    Abstract Vesico-urethral anastomotic stenosis (VUAS) after radical prostatectomy is a narrowing of the vesicourethral anastomosis after radical prostatectomy. We aim to describe a safe re-anastomotic procedure for recurrent bladder neck contracture following radical prostatectomy (RP). This technique allows an easier access to the stenotic vesico-urethral anastomosis, a better mobilization of the bladder neck and a tension free re-anastomosis. Twelve patients suffering from VUAS after radical prostatectomy were enrolled between May 2014 and September 2018. We describe our approach to the disease. The evaluated outcomes were intra- and post-operative complications, stricture recurrence, and postoperative stress incontinence. Average operative time was 3 h. No major intraoperative complications or bleeding occurred. Patients were discharged after 72 h. At the time of catheter removal, 3 weeks after surgery, 9 out of twelve patients developed stress urinary incontinence, requiring 4 pads/day. Two patients with history of pelvic radiotherapy developed a surgical site abscess that required toilette and external urinary diversion. One recurrence occurred and was treated with internal urethrotomy before sphincter placement. No patient reported significant postoperative pain or fecal incontinence. Our approach allows direct access to the posterior urethra, and we demonstrate the advantages for treatment of VUAS to achieve a tension free anastomosis. All patients need to be informed of subsequent urinary incontinence to be treated with artificial sphincter placement. Patients with a history of pelvic radiotherapy show very poor preoperative conditions of the tissues and must be informed about the possibility of an external urinary diversion

    SARS-CoV-2 Infection as a Determining Factor to the Precipitation of Ischemic Priapism in a Young Patient with Asymptomatic COVID-19

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    COVID-19 is a disease characterized by respiratory distress, systemic inflammation, multiple organ dysfunction and coagulation disorders, chiefly pulmonary embolism, and deep venous thrombosis. In this case report, we discuss a peculiar case of ischemic priapism in a 36-year-old patient with asymptomatic COVID-19 and no other plausible causes of thrombophilia and/or alternative causes of priapism, as well as discussing possible explanations for such remarkable findings and comparing them to analogous cases recorded in literature. The patient was unsuccessfully treated via cavernous blood aspiration and required several shunting procedures, with no further recurrences and negative testing for pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and other causes of thrombophilia

    experience of percutaneous access under ultrasound guidance in renal transplant patients with allograft lithiasis

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    Objective: Urolithiasis of the transplanted kidney has an incidence of 0.2 to 1.7%, it increases the risk of infection in immunosuppressed patients and it can lead to ureteral obstruction that is often associated with deterioration of renal function. Urolithiasis of the transplanted kidney has different characteristics compared to the native kidney, due to the absence of innervation, which does not lead to colic pain. Percutaneous approach is an optimal choice in transplant patients. Material and methods: Here we report our experience in two cadaveric transplant patients with urolithiasis. The first case was a patient of 68 years with a 20 mm stone located in the transplanted kidney pelvis and another smaller in a lower calyx. The second case was a patient of 65 years with a 15 mm stone in the distal part of the transplanted ureter. In both cases the patients were asymptomatic, but they had a reduction in urine output associated with worsening of the transplanted kidney function. The diagnosis was performed in both cases with ultrasound study, showing a severe hydronephrosis and it was confirmed by computed tomography scan. In both cases, we performed a Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Access was made after targeting the stone, through a lower pole puncture under ultrasound guidance. The first case was treated with pneumatic and laser energy, breaking stones through a nephroscope. In the second case we performed a laser lithotripsy of the ureteral stone, using a flexible videoureteroscope. At the end of both procedures a Double-J stent and a 14 Fr Malecot nephrostomy were positioned, that were removed at 6 weeks and 10 days, respectively. Results: Both patients achieved a resolution of the worsening of renal function, recovering the spontaneous diuresis. The surgical procedure using ultrasound guidance was safe and allowed quick access to the renal pelvis. Both patients experienced no bleeding or infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an established safe and effective surgical treatment option for larger renal calculi in renal allografts. The ultrasound guided access to the transplanted kidney in percutaneous treatment of urolithiasis is useful and fast, minimizing patient exposure to ionizing radiation

    Metabolomic profiling for the identification of novel diagnostic markers in prostate cancer

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    Metabolomic profiling offers a powerful methodology for understanding the perturbations of biochemical systems occurring during a disease process. During neoplastic transformation, prostate cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to satisfy the demands of growth and proliferation. An early event in prostate cell transformation is the loss of capacity to accumulate zinc. This change is associated with a higher energy efficiency and increased lipid biosynthesis for cellular proliferation, membrane formation and cell signaling. Moreover, recent studies have shown that sarcosine, an N-methyl derivative of glycine, was significantly increased during disease progression from normal to localized to metastatic prostate cancer. Mapping the metabolomic profiles to their respective biochemical pathways showed an upregulation of androgen-induced protein synthesis, an increased amino acid metabolism and a perturbation of nitrogen breakdown pathways, along with high total choline-containing compounds and phosphocholine levels. In this review, the role of emerging biomarkers is summarized, based on the current understanding of the prostate cancer metabolome

    Current Management of Urachal Carcinoma: An Evidence-based Guide for Clinical Practice

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    Unlabelled: Urachal carcinoma is a rare urological disease. The shortage of data about diagnosis and surgical treatment in literature makes it hard for clinicians to make a decision. Indeed, urachal carcinoma is an aggressive disease that requires prompt staging and treatment to ensure the best outcome for patients. We reviewed the last evidence about the management of urachal carcinoma to provide an easy-to-use guide for clinical practice. Patient summary: Urachal carcinoma is a rare malignancy. The literature on this challenging disease remains limited. Herein, we provide a practical guide for its management from diagnosis to treatment, which in most cases requires surgical intervention or chemotherapy

    T cells and delayed graft function

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    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in kidney transplantation is the major cause of delayed graft function (DGF), an event associated with an increased risk of acute rejection. The aim of this study was to evaluate T helper (Th) cell phenotype in renal transplants with DGF. T-bet (Th1), GATA-3 (Th2) and IL-17 (Th17) protein expression was investigated in pretransplant biopsies, DGF and acute tubular damage (ATD) caused by calcineurin-inhibitor toxicity. Intracytofluorimetric analysis of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 was performed to analyze Th1, Th2 and Th17 responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of recipients with early graft function (EGF) and DGF, before (T0) and 24 h after transplantation (T24). In pretransplant biopsies, T-bet(+) , GATA-3(+) and IL-17(+) cells were barely detectable. In DGF, T-bet(+) and IL-17(+) cells were significantly increased compared with pretransplant and ATD. More than 90% of T-bet(+) and less then 5% of IL-17(+) cells were CD4(+) . GATA-3(+) cells were increased to a lower extent. T-bet(+) /GATA-3(+) cell ratio was significantly higher in DGF. Peripheral CD4(+) IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio was significantly decreased in DGF, while CD4(+) /IL-17(+) cells did not differ between T0 and T24 in DGF. Our data suggest that DGF is characterized by a prevalent Th1 phenotype within the graft. This event might represent a link between DGF and acute rejection

    JAK3/STAT5/6 Pathway Alterations Are Associated with Immune Deviation in CD8+ T Cells in Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients

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    To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying altered T cell response in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients, we compared autologous and allogeneic CD8+ T cell responses against RCC line from RCC patients and their HLA-matched donors, using mixed lymphocyte/tumor cell cultures (MLTCs). In addition, we analyzed the expression of molecules associated with cell cycle regulation. Autologous MLTC responder CD8+ T cells showed cytotoxic activity against RCC cell lines; however the analysis of the distribution of CD8+ T-cell subsets revealed that allogenic counterparts mediate superior antitumor efficacy. In RCC patients, a decreased proliferative response to tumor, associated with defects in JAK3/STAT5/6 expression that led to increased p27KIP1 expression and alterations in the cell cycle, was observed. These data define a molecular pathway involved in cell cycle regulation that is associated with the dysfunction of tumor-specific CD8+ effector cells. If validated, this may define a therapeutic target in the setting of patients with RCC

    Adherence to the EAU guidelines on Penile Cancer Treatment: European, multicentre, retrospective study

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    16siPurpose: The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines for penile cancer (PC) are exclusively based on retrospective studies and have low grades of recommendation. The aim of this study was to assess the adherence to guidelines by investigating the management strategies for primary tumours and inguinal lymph nodes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 176 PC patients who underwent surgery in eight European centres from 2010 to 2016. The stage and grade were assessed according to the 2009 AJCC–UICC TNM classification system. To assess adherence rates, we compared theoretical and practical adherence to the EAU guidelines. Results: Overall, 176 patients were enrolled. Partial amputation was the most frequent surgical approach (39%). 53.7% of tumours were stage Tis-T1b and the remaining 46.3% were stage T2-T4. Palpable lymph nodes were detected in 30.1% of patients and 45.1% underwent lymphadenectomy (LY). A sizeable group of tumours (43.2%) were N0. For primary treatment, adherence to the EAU guidelines was good (66%). In non-adherent cases, reasons for discrepancy were patient’s choice (17%), surgeon’s preference (36%), and other causes (47%). For LY, the guideline adherence was 70%, with either patient’s or surgeon’s choice or other causes accounting for discrepancy in 28, 20, and 52% of non-adherent cases, respectively. Conclusion: Adherence to the EAU guidelines for PC was quite high across the eight European centres involved in the study. This notwithstanding, strategies for further improvement should be developed and evenly adopted.openopenBada M.; Berardinelli F.; Nyirady P.; Varga J.; Ditonno P.; Battaglia M.; Chiodini P.; De Nunzio C.; Tema G.; Veccia A.; Antonelli A.; Cindolo L.; Simeone C.; Puliatti S.; Micali S.; Schips L.Bada, M.; Berardinelli, F.; Nyirady, P.; Varga, J.; Ditonno, P.; Battaglia, M.; Chiodini, P.; De Nunzio, C.; Tema, G.; Veccia, A.; Antonelli, A.; Cindolo, L.; Simeone, C.; Puliatti, S.; Micali, S.; Schips, L

    Metabolomic Approaches for Detection and Identification of Biomarkers and Altered Pathways in Bladder Cancer

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    Metabolomic analysis has proven to be a useful tool in biomarker discovery and the molecular classification of cancers. In order to find new biomarkers, and to better understand its pathological behavior, bladder cancer also has been studied using a metabolomics approach. In this article, we review the literature on metabolomic studies of bladder cancer, focusing on the different available samples (urine, blood, tissue samples) used to perform the studies and their relative findings. Moreover, the multi-omic approach in bladder cancer research has found novel insights into its metabolic behavior, providing excellent start-points for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Metabolomics data analysis can lead to the discovery of a “signature pathway” associated with the progression of bladder cancer; this aspect could be potentially valuable in predictions of clinical outcomes and the introduction of new treatments. However, further studies are needed to give stronger evidence and to make these tools feasible for use in clinical practice
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