208 research outputs found

    Responsive glyco-poly(2-oxazoline)s: synthesis, cloud point tuning, and lectin binding

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    A new sugar-substituted 2-oxazoline monomer was prepared using the copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Its copolymerization with 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline as well as 2-(dec-9-enyl)-2-oxazoline, yielding well-defined copolymers with the possibility to tune the properties by thiol-ene "click" reactions, is described. Extensive solubility studies on the corresponding glycocopolymers demonstrated that the lower critical solution temperature behavior and pH-responsiveness of these copolymers can be adjusted in water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) depending on the choice of the thiol. By conjugation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-thio-beta-D-glucopyranose and subsequent deprotection of the sugar moieties, the hydrophilicity of the copolymer could be increased significantly, allowing a cloud-point tuning in the physiological range. Furthermore, the binding capability of the glycosylated copoly(2-oxazoline) to concanavalin A was investigated

    Comparison of risk-scoring systems in the prediction of outcome after liver resection

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    Background: Risk prediction techniques commonly used in liver surgery include the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grading, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET). This study compares the utility of these techniques along with the number of segments resected as predictive tools in liver surgery. Methods: A review of a unit database of patients undergoing liver resection between February 2008 and January 2015 was undertaken. Patient demographics, ASA, CCI and CPET variables were recorded along with resection size. Clavien-Dindo grade III–V complications were used as a composite outcome in analyses. Association between predictive variables and outcome was assessed by univariate and multivariate techniques. Results: One hundred and seventy-two resections in 168 patients were identified. Grade III–V complications occurred after 42 (24.4%) liver resections. In univariate analysis of CPET variables, ventilatory equivalents for CO2 (VEqCO2) was associated with outcome. CCI score, but not ASA grade, was also associated with outcome. In multivariate analysis, the odds ratio of developing grade III–V complications for incremental increases in VEqCO2, CCI and number of liver segments resected were 1.09, 1.49 and 2.94, respectively. Conclusions: Of the techniques evaluated, resection size provides the simplest and most discriminating predictor of significant complications following liver surgery

    Variations and inter-relationship in outcome from emergency admissions in England: a retrospective analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics from 2005-2010.

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    BACKGROUND: The quality of care delivered and clinical outcomes of care are of paramount importance. Wide variations in the outcome of emergency care have been suggested, but the scale of variation, and the way in which outcomes are inter-related are poorly defined and are critical to understand how best to improve services. This study quantifies the scale of variation in three outcomes for a contemporary cohort of patients undergoing emergency medical and surgical admissions. The way in which the outcomes of different diagnoses relate to each other is investigated. METHODS: A retrospective study using the English Hospital Episode Statistics 2005-2010 with one-year follow-up for all patients with one of 20 of the commonest and highest-risk emergency medical or surgical conditions. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause risk-standardised mortality rate (in-RSMR). Secondary outcomes were 1-year all-cause risk-standardised mortality rate (1 yr-RSMR) and 28-day all-cause emergency readmission rate (RSRR). RESULTS: 2,406,709 adult patients underwent emergency medical or surgical admissions in the groups of interest. Clinically and statistically significant variations in outcome were observed between providers for all three outcomes (p < 0.001). For some diagnoses including heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, stroke and fractured neck of femur, more than 20% of hospitals lay above the upper 95% control limit and were statistical outliers. The risk-standardised outcomes within a given hospital for an individual diagnostic group were significantly associated with the aggregated outcome of the other clinical groups. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital-level risk-standardised outcomes for emergency admissions across a range of specialties vary considerably and cross traditional speciality boundaries. This suggests that global institutional infra-structure and processes of care influence outcomes. The implications are far reaching, both in terms of investigating performance at individual hospitals and in understanding how hospitals can learn from the best performers to improve outcomes

    Trends in Utilization of Adrenalectomy in the United States: Have Indications Changed?

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    Minimally invasive approaches have dramatically reduced morbidity associated with adrenalectomy. There has been concern that an increased frequency of adrenal imaging along with the advantages of less morbidity could influence the indications for adrenalectomy. We tested the hypothesis that adrenalectomy has become more common over time and that benign diseases have been increasingly represented among procedural indications. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was utilized to determine the incidence of adrenalectomy and the associated surgical indications in the United States between 1988 and 2000. All discharged patients were identified whose primary ICD-9-CM procedure code was for adrenalectomy, regardless of the specific surgical approach (laparoscopic adrenalectomy was not reliably coded). This subset was then queried for associated ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. Linear regression and t -tests were utilized to determine the significance of trends. The total number of adrenalectomies increased significantly, from 12.9 per 100,000 discharges in 1988 to 18.5 per 100,000 discharges in 2000 ( p = 0.000003). The total number of adrenalectomies with a primary ICD-9-CM code for malignant adrenal neoplasm did not increase significantly: from 1.2 per 100,000 discharges in 1988 to 1.6 per 100,000 discharges in 2000 ( p = 0.47). The total number of adrenalectomies with a primary ICD-9-CM diagnostic code for benign adrenal neoplasm increased significantly, from 2.8 per 100,000 discharges in 1988 to 4.8 per 100,000 discharges in 2000 ( p = 0.00002). The average percentage of adrenalectomies performed for malignant neoplasm was significantly higher during the period 1988–1993 when compared to 1994–2000 (11% vs. 9%; p = 0.002). The average percentage of adrenalectomies performed for benign neoplasm was significantly lower during 1988–1993 when compared to 1994–2000 (25% vs. 28%; p = 0.015). Adrenalectomy is being performed with increasing frequency. This is associated with an increase in the proportion of adrenalectomies performed for benign neoplasms. Assuming no significant change in disease prevalence during the study period, these data suggest that indications for adrenalectomy may have changed somewhat over that period.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/41300/1/268_2004_Article_7619.pd

    In-hospital mortality after stomach cancer surgery in Spain and relationship with hospital volume of interventions

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>There is no consensus about the possible relation between in-hospital mortality in surgery for gastric cancer and the hospital annual volume of interventions. The objectives were to identify factors associated to greater in-hospital mortality for surgery in gastric cancer and to analyze the possible independent relation between hospital annual volume and in-hospital mortality.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients discharged after surgery for stomach cancer during 2001–2002 in four regions of Spain using the Minimum Basic Data Set for Hospital Discharges. The overall and specific in-hospital mortality rates were estimated according to patient and hospital characteristics. We adjusted a logistic regression model in order to calculate the in-hospital mortality according to hospital volume.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>There were 3241 discharges in 144 hospitals. In-hospital mortality was 10.3% (95% CI 9.3–11.4). A statistically significant relation was observed among age, type of admission, volume, and mortality, as well as diverse secondary diagnoses or the type of intervention. Hospital annual volume was associated to Charlson score, type of admission, region, length of stay and number of secondary diagnoses registered at discharge. In the adjusted model, increased age and urgent admission were associated to increased in-hospital mortality. Likewise, partial gastrectomy (Billroth I and II) and simple excision of lymphatic structure were associated with a lower probability of in-hospital mortality. No independent association was found between hospital volume and in-hospital mortality</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Despite the limitations of our study, our results corroborate the existence of patient, clinical, and intervention factors associated to greater hospital mortality, although we found no clear association between the volume of cases treated at a centre and hospital mortality.</p
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