586 research outputs found

    Chimera: A hybrid approach to numerical loop quantum cosmology

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    The existence of a quantum bounce in isotropic spacetimes is a key result in loop quantum cosmology (LQC), which has been demonstrated to arise in all the models studied so far. In most of the models, the bounce has been studied using numerical simulations involving states which are sharply peaked and which bounce at volumes much larger than the Planck volume. An important issue is to confirm the existence of the bounce for states which have a wide spread, or which bounce closer to the Planck volume. Numerical simulations with such states demand large computational domains, making them very expensive and practically infeasible with the techniques which have been implemented so far. To overcome these difficulties, we present an efficient hybrid numerical scheme using the property that at the small spacetime curvature, the quantum Hamiltonian constraint in LQC, which is a difference equation with uniform discretization in volume, can be approximated by a Wheeler-DeWitt differential equation. By carefully choosing a hybrid spatial grid allowing the use of partial differential equations at large volumes, and with a simple change of geometrical coordinate, we obtain a surprising reduction in the computational cost. This scheme enables us to explore regimes which were so far unachievable for the isotropic model in LQC. Our approach also promises to significantly reduce the computational cost for numerical simulations in anisotropic LQC using high performance computing.Comment: Minor revision to match published version. To appear in CQ

    Numerical simulations of a loop quantum cosmos: robustness of the quantum bounce and the validity of effective dynamics

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    A key result of isotropic loop quantum cosmology is the existence of a quantum bounce which occurs when the energy density of the matter field approaches a universal maximum close to the Planck density. Though the bounce has been exhibited in various matter models, due to severe computational challenges some important questions have so far remained unaddressed. These include the demonstration of the bounce for widely spread states, its detailed properties for the states when matter field probes regions close to the Planck volume and the reliability of the continuum effective spacetime description in general. In this manuscript we rigorously answer these questions using the Chimera numerical scheme for the isotropic spatially flat model sourced with a massless scalar field. We show that as expected from an exactly solvable model, the quantum bounce is a generic feature of states even with a very wide spread, and for those which bounce much closer to the Planck volume. We perform a detailed analysis of the departures from the effective description and find some expected, and some surprising results. At a coarse level of description, the effective dynamics can be regarded as a good approximation to the underlying quantum dynamics unless the states correspond to small scalar field momenta, in which case they bounce closer to the Planck volume, or are very widely spread. Quantifying the amount of discrepancy between the quantum and the effective dynamics, we find that the departure between them depends in a subtle and non-monotonic way on the field momentum and different fluctuations. Interestingly, the departures are generically found to be such that the effective dynamics overestimates the spacetime curvature, and underestimates the volume at the bounce.Comment: 47 pages, 26 figures; References updated. Minor changes to match the version published in CQ

    Self-force with (3+1) codes: a primer for numerical relativists

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    Prescriptions for numerical self-force calculations have traditionally been designed for frequency-domain or (1+1) time-domain codes which employ a mode decomposition to facilitate in carrying out a delicate regularization scheme. This has prevented self-force analyses from benefiting from the powerful suite of tools developed and used by numerical relativists for simulations of the evolution of comparable-mass black hole binaries. In this work, we revisit a previously-introduced (3+1) method for self-force calculations, and demonstrate its viability by applying it to the test case of a scalar charge moving in a circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. Two (3+1) codes originally developed for numerical relativity applications were independently employed, and in each we were able to compute the two independent components of the self-force and the energy flux correctly to within <1< 1%. We also demonstrate consistency between tt-component of the self-force and the scalar energy flux. Our results constitute the first successful calculation of a self-force in a (3+1) framework, and thus open opportunities for the numerical relativity community in self-force analyses and the perturbative modeling of extreme-mass-ratio inspirals.Comment: 23 pages, 13 figure

    Numerical evolution of squeezed and non-Gaussian states in loop quantum cosmology

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    In recent years, numerical simulations with Gaussian initial states have demonstrated the existence of a quantum bounce in loop quantum cosmology in various models. A key issue pertaining to the robustness of the bounce and the associated physics is to understand the quantum evolution for more general initial states which may depart significantly from Gaussianity and may have no well defined peakedness properties. The analysis of such states, including squeezed and highly non-Gaussian states, has been computationally challenging until now. In this manuscript, we overcome these challenges by using the Chimera scheme for the spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic model sourced with a massless scalar field. We demonstrate that the quantum bounce in this model occurs even for states which are highly squeezed or are non-Gaussian with multiple peaks and with little resemblance to semi-classical states. The existence of the bounce is found to be robust, being independent of the properties of the states. The evolution of squeezed and non-Gaussian states turns out to be qualitatively similar to that of Gaussian states, and satisfies strong constraints on the growth of the relative fluctuations across the bounce. We also compare the results from the effective dynamics and find that, although it captures the qualitative aspects of the evolution for squeezed and highly non-Gaussian states, it always underestimates the bounce volume. We show that various properties of the evolution, such as the energy density at the bounce, are in excellent agreement with the predictions from an exactly solvable loop quantum cosmological model for arbitrary states.Comment: 26 pages, 16 figures. v2: Discussion of the main results expande

    A multi-block infrastructure for three-dimensional time-dependent numerical relativity

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    We describe a generic infrastructure for time evolution simulations in numerical relativity using multiple grid patches. After a motivation of this approach, we discuss the relative advantages of global and patch-local tensor bases. We describe both our multi-patch infrastructure and our time evolution scheme, and comment on adaptive time integrators and parallelisation. We also describe various patch system topologies that provide spherical outer and/or multiple inner boundaries. We employ penalty inter-patch boundary conditions, and we demonstrate the stability and accuracy of our three-dimensional implementation. We solve both a scalar wave equation on a stationary rotating black hole background and the full Einstein equations. For the scalar wave equation, we compare the effects of global and patch-local tensor bases, different finite differencing operators, and the effect of artificial dissipation onto stability and accuracy. We show that multi-patch systems can directly compete with the so-called fixed mesh refinement approach; however, one can also combine both. For the Einstein equations, we show that using multiple grid patches with penalty boundary conditions leads to a robustly stable system. We also show long-term stable and accurate evolutions of a one-dimensional non-linear gauge wave. Finally, we evolve weak gravitational waves in three dimensions and extract accurate waveforms, taking advantage of the spherical shape of our grid lines.Comment: 18 pages. Some clarifications added, figure layout improve

    Turduckening black holes: an analytical and computational study

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    We provide a detailed analysis of several aspects of the turduckening technique for evolving black holes. At the analytical level we study the constraint propagation for a general family of BSSN-type formulation of Einstein's field equations and identify under what conditions the turducken procedure is rigorously justified and under what conditions constraint violations will propagate to the outside of the black holes. We present high-resolution spherically symmetric studies which verify our analytical predictions. Then we present three dimensional simulations of single distorted black holes using different variations of the turduckening method and also the puncture method. We study the effect that these different methods have on the coordinate conditions, constraint violations, and extracted gravitational waves. We find that the waves agree up to small but non-vanishing differences, caused by escaping superluminal gauge modes. These differences become smaller with increasing detector location.Comment: Minor changes to match the final version to appear in PR

    Accelerated motion and the self-force in Schwarzschild spacetime

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    We provide expansions of the Detweiler-Whiting singular field for motion along arbitrary, planar accelerated trajectories in Schwarzschild spacetime. We transcribe these results into mode-sum regularization parameters, computing previously unknown terms that increase the convergence rate of the mode-sum. We test our results by computing the self-force along a variety of accelerated trajectories. For non-uniformly accelerated circular orbits we present results from a new 1+1D discontinuous Galerkin time-domain code which employs an effective-source. We also present results for uniformly accelerated circular orbits and accelerated bound eccentric orbits computed within a frequency-domain treatment. Our regularization results will be useful for computing self-consistent self-force inspirals where the particle's worldline is accelerated with respect to the background spacetime.Comment: 19 pages, 6 figures (accepted CQG special issue article version

    Uniqueness, Continuity, and Existence of Implicit Functions in Constructive Analysis

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    We extract a quantitative variant of uniqueness from the usual hypotheses of the implicit functions theorem. This leads not only to an a priori proof of continuity, but also to an alternative, fully constructive existence proof

    A Lightweight Field Cage for a Large TPC Prototype for the ILC

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    We have developed and constructed the field cage of a prototype Time Projection Chamber for research and development studies for a detector at the International Linear Collider. This prototype has an inner diameter of 72 cm and a length of 61 cm. The design of the field cage wall was optimized for a low material budget of 1.21 % of a radiation length and a drift field homogeneity of Delta(E)/(E) less or equal 10^-4. Since November 2008 the prototype has been part of a comprehensive test beam setup at DESY and used as a test chamber for the development of Micro Pattern Gas Detector based readout devices.Comment: 16 pages, 13 figures, 3 table
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