959 research outputs found

    Primordial magnetic fields from preheating at the electroweak scale

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    We analyze the generation of helical magnetic fields during preheating in a model of low-scale electroweak (EW) hybrid inflation. We show how the inhomogeneities in the Higgs field, resulting from tachyonic preheating after inflation, seed the magnetic fields in a way analogous to that predicted by Vachaspati and Cornwall in the context of the EW symmetry breaking. At this stage, the helical nature of the generated magnetic fields is linked to the non-trivial winding of the Higgs-field. We analyze non-perturbatively the evolution of these helical seeds through the highly non-linear stages of symmetry breaking (SB) and beyond. Electroweak SB occurs via the nucleation and growth of Higgs bubbles which squeeze the magnetic fields into string-like structures. The W-boson charge density clusters in lumps around the magnetic strings. After symmetry breaking, a detailed analysis of the magnetic field Fourier spectrum shows two well differentiated components: a UV radiation tail at a temperature T ~ 0.23 m_higgs slowly growing with time, and an IR peak associated to the helical magnetic fields, which seems to follow inverse cascade. The system enters a regime in which we observe that both the amplitude (\rho_B/\rho_{EW} ~ 0.01) and the correlation length of the magnetic field grow linearly with time. During this stage of evolution we also observe a power-law growth in the helical susceptibility. These properties support the possibility that our scenario could provide the seeds eventually evolving into the microgauss fields observed today in galaxies and clusters of galaxies.Comment: 55 pages, late

    The antiviral and virucidal activities of voacangine and structural analogs extracted from Tabernaemontana cymosa depend on the Dengue virus strain

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    Currently, no specific licensed antiviral exists for treating the illness caused by dengue virus (DENV). Therefore, the search for compounds of natural origin with antiviral activity is an important area of research. In the present study, three compounds were isolated and identified from seeds of Tabernaemontana cymosa plants. The in vitro antiviral effect of those compounds and voacangine against different DENV strains was assessed using different experimental approaches: compounds added before the infection (Pre), at the same time with the virus (Trans), after the infection (Post) or compounds present in all moments of the experiment (Pre-Trans-Post, Combined treatment). In silico studies (docking and molecular dynamics) were also performed to explain the possible antiviral mechanisms. The identified compounds were three structural analogs of voacangine (voacangine-7-hydroxyindolenine, rupicoline and 3-oxo-voacangine). In the Pre-treatment, only voacangine-7-hydroxyindolenine and rupicoline inhibited the infection caused by the DENV-2/NG strain (16.4% and 29.6% infection, respectively). In the Trans-treatment approach, voacangine, voacangine-7-hydroxyindolenine and rupicoline inhibited the infection in both DENV-2/NG (11.2%, 80.4% and 75.7% infection, respectively) and DENV-2/16681 infection models (73.7%, 74.0% and 75.3% infection, respectively). The latter strain was also inhibited by 3-oxo-voacangine (82.8% infection). Moreover, voacangine (most effective virucidal agent) was also effective against one strain of DENV-1 (DENV-1/WestPac/74) and against the third strain of DENV-2 (DENV-2/S16803) (48.5% and 32.4% infection, respectively). Conversely, no inhibition was observed in the post-treatment approach. The last approach (combined) showed that voacangine, voacangine-7-hydroxyindolenine and rupicoline inhibited over 90% of infections (3.5%, 6.9% and 3.5% infection, respectively) of both strains (DENV-2/NG and DENV-2/16681). The free energy of binding obtained with an in silico approach was favorable for the E protein and compounds, which ranged between ‚ąí5.1 and ‚ąí6.3 kcal/mol. Finally, the complex formed between DENV-2 E protein and the best virucidal compound was stable for 50 ns. Our results show that the antiviral effect of indole alkaloids derived from T. cymose depends on the serotype and the virus strain.https://scienti.colciencias.gov.co/cvlac/visualizador/generarCurriculoCv.do?cod_rh=0000213748https://scholar.google.es/citations?user=flSrsSIAAAAJ&hl=eshttps://scienti.minciencias.gov.co/gruplac/jsp/visualiza/visualizagr.jsp?nro=00000000000695https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9429-005

    Fístula arteriovenosa traumática del cuero cabelludo tras implantación capilar tratada con éxito mediante agente embólico PHIL

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    Antecedentes: La f√≠stula arteriovenosa traum√°tica del cuero cabelludo por trasplante capilar (FAVT) es una rara comunicaci√≥n fistulosa entre ramas de las arterias y venas de drenaje en el tejido subcut√°neo del cuero cabelludo. Su incidencia es desconocida y sus manifestaciones cl√≠nicas pueden ir desde una masa puls√°til hasta, en raras ocasiones, epilepsia. Como opciones de tratamiento se han utilizado la cirug√≠a y los abordajes intervencionistas (embolizaci√≥n percut√°nea y endovascular) mediante espirales y agentes emb√≥licos como el Onyx. e autores informan de un caso poco frecuente de una AVFHT tratada con √©xito mediante embolizaci√≥n percut√°nea y endovascular utilizando coils y agente emb√≥lico l√≠quido inyectable hidr√≥fobo precipitante (PHIL). is es posiblemente el primer caso descrito en el que se utiliza el agente emb√≥lico PHIL para tratar una AVFHT. Descripci√≥n del caso: e paciente present√≥ una inflamaci√≥n del cuero cabelludo dolorosa e incapacitante en la regi√≥n parieto-occipital derecha 2 a√Īos despu√©s de un trasplante capilar en 2011. Una angiograf√≠a por tomograf√≠a computarizada mostr√≥ una f√≠stula arteriovenosa entre ramas de la arteria temporal superficial derecha y ramas de la arteria occipital derecha a la vena temporal superficial derecha que se emboliz√≥ con √©xito utilizando coils y PHIL. e paciente fue dado de alta tras una recuperaci√≥n sin complicaciones y 1 mes despu√©s permanec√≠a sano. Conclusiones: La embolizaci√≥n percut√°nea y endovascular utilizando el agente emb√≥lico PHIL puede ser un tratamiento alternativo para la AVFHT.Background: A¬†traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the scalp due to hair transplantation (AVFHT) is a rare fistulous communication between branches of the arteries and draining veins in the scalp‚Äôs subcutaneous tissue. Its incidence is unknown and its clinical manifestations may range from a pulsatile mass to seldom epilepsy. Surgery and interventional approaches (percutaneous and endovascular embolization) using coils and embolic agents such as Onyx have been used as treatment options. e authors report a rare case of an AVFHT successfully treated through percutaneous and endovascular embolization using coils and precipitating hydrophobic injectable liquid (PHIL) embolic agent. is is possibly the first reported case using PHIL embolic agent to treat an AVFHT. Case Description: e patient presented with a painful and disabling scalp swelling in the right parieto-occipital region 2¬†years after a hair transplant in 2011. A¬†computed tomography angiography showed an arteriovenous f istula between branches of the right superficial temporal artery and branches of the right occipital artery to the right superficial temporal vein that was successfully embolized using coils and PHIL. e patient was discharged after a smooth recovery and 1¬†month later remained healthy. Conclusion: Percutaneous and endovascular embolization using PHIL embolic agent can be an alternative treatment for AVFHT

    Comportamientos del profesor universitario y éxito académico de los estudiantes de los grados de maestro de infantil y primaria

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    ¬†It¬īs disturbing to think about the idea that the teacher can lead a student to achieve great successes or, on the contrary, beat him academically.¬†It¬īs for this reason that it¬īs necessary to explore the behavior of teaching professionals, from the point of view of the student, to know which ones they consider that will impact positively on their academic success.¬†In order to this, a sample of 486 pupils from grades Primary Education Teachers (199) and Primary (287) in the Faculty of Education of Albacete (University of Castilla La Mancha) Education was analized.¬†A questionnaire (Tuncel, 2009) (from few questions and the type of response ) was applied and, using a Factor Analysis Exploratory, there were found six dimensions to which the students gave the highest importance: "Emotional aptitude of teachers " ; " Teacher-student interaction " ; " Achieving the goals of education" , "Connecting between teaching of theory and practices " ; "Planning and organization of teaching " ; "Correct and provide information to students about their advance and progress."¬†Es inquietante la idea de pensar que el profesor puede conseguir que un alumno alcance grandes √©xitos o que, por el contrario se hunda acad√©micamente.Es por ello por lo que se hace necesario explorar los comportamientos de los profesionales de la ense√Īanza en la Educaci√≥n superior, desde el punto de vista del alumno, para conocer cu√°les son los que ellos consideran que repercutir√°n de forma positiva en su √©xito acad√©mico.Para ello se cont√≥ con una muestra de 486 alumnos, pertenecientes a los grados de Maestros de Educaci√≥n Infantil (199) y Educaci√≥n Primaria (287) en la Facultad de Educaci√≥n de Albacete (Universidad de Castilla la Mancha).Se aplic√≥ ¬†un cuestionario (Tuncel, 2009) ¬†y mediante un An√°lisis Factorial exploratorio, aparecieron seis dimensiones a las cuales los alumnos le otorgaron la mayor importancia, siendo estas: ‚ÄúAptitud emocional de los profesores‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúInteracci√≥n profesor-alumno‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúLograr y conseguir los objetivos de la ense√Īanza‚ÄĚ, ‚ÄúConexi√≥n durante la instrucci√≥n de la teor√≠a con las practicas‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúPlanificaci√≥n y organizaci√≥n¬† de la docencia‚ÄĚ; ‚ÄúCorregir y proporcionar informaciones a los alumnos de sus avances y progresos‚ÄĚ

    The Fourteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and from the second phase of the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

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    The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) has been in operation since July 2014. This paper describes the second data release from this phase, and the fourteenth from SDSS overall (making this, Data Release Fourteen or DR14). This release makes public data taken by SDSS-IV in its first two years of operation (July 2014-2016). Like all previous SDSS releases, DR14 is cumulative, including the most recent reductions and calibrations of all data taken by SDSS since the first phase began operations in 2000. New in DR14 is the first public release of data from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS); the first data from the second phase of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), including stellar parameter estimates from an innovative data driven machine learning algorithm known as "The Cannon"; and almost twice as many data cubes from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey as were in the previous release (N = 2812 in total). This paper describes the location and format of the publicly available data from SDSS-IV surveys. We provide references to the important technical papers describing how these data have been taken (both targeting and observation details) and processed for scientific use. The SDSS website (www.sdss.org) has been updated for this release, and provides links to data downloads, as well as tutorials and examples of data use. SDSS-IV is planning to continue to collect astronomical data until 2020, and will be followed by SDSS-V.Comment: SDSS-IV collaboration alphabetical author data release paper. DR14 happened on 31st July 2017. 19 pages, 5 figures. Accepted by ApJS on 28th Nov 2017 (this is the "post-print" and "post-proofs" version; minor corrections only from v1, and most of errors found in proofs corrected

    Comparison of seven prognostic tools to identify low-risk pulmonary embolism in patients aged <50 years

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    Impact of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the outcome of neurosurgical patients: A nationwide study in Spain

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    Objective To assess the effect of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the outcome of neurosurgical patients in Spain. Settings The initial flood of COVID-19 patients overwhelmed an unprepared healthcare system. Different measures were taken to deal with this overburden. The effect of these measures on neurosurgical patients, as well as the effect of COVID-19 itself, has not been thoroughly studied. Participants This was a multicentre, nationwide, observational retrospective study of patients who underwent any neurosurgical operation from March to July 2020. Interventions An exploratory factorial analysis was performed to select the most relevant variables of the sample. Primary and secondary outcome measures Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify independent predictors of mortality and postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results Sixteen hospitals registered 1677 operated patients. The overall mortality was 6.4%, and 2.9% (44 patients) suffered a perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of those infections, 24 were diagnosed postoperatively. Age (OR 1.05), perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 4.7), community COVID-19 incidence (cases/10 5 people/week) (OR 1.006), postoperative neurological worsening (OR 5.9), postoperative need for airway support (OR 5.38), ASA grade =3 (OR 2.5) and preoperative GCS 3-8 (OR 2.82) were independently associated with mortality. For SARS-CoV-2 postoperative infection, screening swab test <72 hours preoperatively (OR 0.76), community COVID-19 incidence (cases/10 5 people/week) (OR 1.011), preoperative cognitive impairment (OR 2.784), postoperative sepsis (OR 3.807) and an absence of postoperative complications (OR 0.188) were independently associated. Conclusions Perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection in neurosurgical patients was associated with an increase in mortality by almost fivefold. Community COVID-19 incidence (cases/10 5 people/week) was a statistically independent predictor of mortality. Trial registration number CEIM 20/217

    Calidad de las elecciones a titular del Ejecutivo en el Centro y Centro-occidente de México

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    Este libro, que tiene por objetivo analizar la calidad de las elecciones celebradas entre 2006 y 2011 para ocupar la titularidad del Poder Ejecutivo de las 14 entidades federativas de la Rep√ļblica Mexicana que conforman las regiones Centro y Centro-occidente de este pa√≠s, ha sido elaborado por investigadores pertenecientes a la Red Nacional de Investigaci√≥n sobre la Calidad de la Democracia en M√©xico (Renicadem), la cual cuenta con un equipo de investigaci√≥n en cada una de las entidades federativas del pa√≠s. A su vez, esta Red constituye una de las cuatro l√≠neas tem√°ticas que componen la red tem√°tica del Conacyt ‚ÄúSociedad civil y calidad de la democracia‚ÄĚ. Con todo, la presente obra puede considerarse, en dos sentidos, como el resultado parcial de estudios realizados por investigadores que conforman la mencionada Renicadem. Por un lado, trata s√≥lo de una de las varias dimensiones que esta Red ha establecido como necesarias para analizar la calidad de la democracia: la calidad electoral (otras dimensiones, que se encuentran en proceso de investigaci√≥n, son calidad de vida, rendici√≥n de cuentas y Estado de derecho). Tambi√©n es parcial porque no abarca la totalidad de la Rep√ļblica Mexicana, sino √ļnicamente a las 14 entidades indicadas.UAE

    The 13th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: First Spectroscopic Data from the SDSS-IV Survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

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    The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) began observations in July 2014. It pursues three core programs: APOGEE-2,MaNGA, and eBOSS. In addition, eBOSS contains two major subprograms: TDSS and SPIDERS. This paper describes the first data release from SDSS-IV, Data Release 13 (DR13), which contains new data, reanalysis of existing data sets and, like all SDSS data releases, is inclusive of previously released data. DR13 makes publicly available 1390 spatially resolved integral field unit observations of nearby galaxies from MaNGA,the first data released from this survey. It includes new observations from eBOSS, completing SEQUELS. In addition to targeting galaxies and quasars, SEQUELS also targeted variability-selected objects from TDSS and X-ray selected objects from SPIDERS. DR13 includes new reductions ofthe SDSS-III BOSS data, improving the spectrophotometric calibration and redshift classification. DR13 releases new reductions of the APOGEE-1data from SDSS-III, with abundances of elements not previously included and improved stellar parameters for dwarf stars and cooler stars. For the SDSS imaging data, DR13 provides new, more robust and precise photometric calibrations. Several value-added catalogs are being released in tandem with DR13, in particular target catalogs relevant for eBOSS, TDSS, and SPIDERS, and an updated red-clump catalog for APOGEE.This paper describes the location and format of the data now publicly available, as well as providing references to the important technical papers that describe the targeting, observing, and data reduction. The SDSS website, http://www.sdss.org, provides links to the data, tutorials and examples of data access, and extensive documentation of the reduction and analysis procedures. DR13 is the first of a scheduled set that will contain new data and analyses from the planned ~6-year operations of SDSS-IV.PostprintPeer reviewe
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