527 research outputs found

    Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Nicaragua

    Get PDF
    Distorted incentives, agricultural and trade policy reforms, national agricultural development, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, F13, F14, Q17, Q18,

    Delaying the Bell: The Effects of Longer School Days on Adolescent Motherhood in Chile

    Get PDF
    We analyze the effect of a Chilean school reform that lengthened the school day from half to full-day shifts on the likelihood that adolescent girls become mothers. By increasing the number of hours spent in school, the reform curtails opportunities to engage in risky sexual behaviors. Using Chile's socio-economic household surveys and administrative data from the Ministry of Education from 1990–2006, we exploit the exogenous time and regional variation in the implementation of the reform to identify the effects of increased education and adult supervision on the likelihood that adolescent girls become mothers. We find that access to full-day schools reduces the probability of becoming an adolescent mother among poor families and in urban areas: an increase in full-day municipal enrollment of 20% reduces the likelihood of teen motherhood by 5%.adolescent motherhood, adolescent pregnancy, school day reform, Chile

    Shocks and coffee : lessons from Nicaragua

    Get PDF
    Using household level panel data from Nicaragua, this paper explores the impact of the recent coffee crisis on rural households engaged in coffee production, and coffee labor work. Taking advantage of the panel structure of the data, a number of findings emerge: a) while overall growth between 1998, and 2001 was widespread in rural Nicaragua, coffee households saw large declines in various socioeconomic outcomes; b) among coffee households, it is small farm households that were affected the most, and not poor labor households as previously expected; c) even though coffee households used various risk management strategies to address the shock, it was pre shock, ex-ante strategies (like income diversification) that were the most effective in allowing coffee households insulate against the shock. By contrast, the coffee households that used ex-post coping instruments, did not manage to mitigate the adverse impact as well, with additional potential long run implications via extensive uses of harmful coping strategies (like increases in child labor); and, d) the coffee shock affected upward mobility, and downward poverty vulnerability of coffee households. Such findings seem to confirm the widespread impact of shocks on overall household behavior, and indicate the importance of incorporating risk management in the policy agenda of poverty reduction.Housing&Human Habitats,Regional Rural Development,Crops&Crop Management Systems,VN-Acb Mis -- IFC-00535908,Environmental Economics&Policies

    El papel de las redes sociales en las oportunidades económicas de las mujeres de Bolivia

    Get PDF
    En este trabajo se analiza el papel de las redes sociales para determinar la participación de mujeres bolivianas en actividades generadoras de ingresos. Los resultados hacen pensar que las redes sociales son un canal eficaz para que las mujeres obtengan acceso a empleos asalariados, los cuales son de mayor calidad que los empleos independientes. Por el contrario, sus contrapartes varones perciben un efecto positivo aunque estadísticamente insignificante en la interacción con redes sociales. Al tomar en cuenta el sexo del contacto, las mujeres de zonas urbanas se benefician de otras mujeres empleadas, mientras en las zonas rurales las mujeres se benefician de la presencia de más trabajadores hombres empleados. (Disponible en Inglés)

    PD-L1 blockade enhances response of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to radiotherapy

    Get PDF
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered a non‐immunogenic tumor, and immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy lacks efficacy in this disease. Radiotherapy (RT) can stimulate the immune system. Here, we show that treatment of KPC and Pan02 murine PDAC cells with RT and gemcitabine upregulated PD‐L1 expression in a JAK/Stat1‐dependent manner. In vitro, PD‐L1 inhibition did not alter radio‐ and chemosensitivity. In vivo, addition of anti‐PD‐L1 to high (12, 5 × 3, 20 Gy) but not low (6, 5 × 2 Gy) RT doses significantly improved tumor response in KPC and Pan02 allografts. Radiosensitization after PD‐L1 blockade was associated with reduced CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cell infiltration and enhanced CD45+CD8+ T‐cell infiltration with concomitant upregulation of T‐cell activation markers including CD69, CD44, and FasL, and increased CD8:Treg ratio. Depletion of CD8+ T cells abrogated radiosensitization by anti‐PD‐L1. Blockade of PD‐L1 further augmented the effect of high RT doses (12 Gy) in preventing development of liver metastases. Exploring multiple mathematical models reveals a mechanism able to explain the observed synergy between RT and anti‐PD‐L1 therapy. Our findings provide a rationale for testing the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors with RT in PDAC

    Estimating the effects of teen motherhood in Chile: a family fixed effects approach

    Get PDF
    We study the effect of adolescent motherhood on education and labor outcomes among 20-24 year old women in Chile. We identify causal effects of motherhood with family fixed effects using a large data set covering the 1990-2011 period. Teen motherhood has negative effects on education and labor outcomes, and timing of motherhood matters: teen births reduce education outcomes, while young motherhood reduces labor force participation. Labor outcome effects are present among the non-poor, and effects changed between 1990 and 2011. Results highlight the important role of adolescent motherhood in women’s human capital accumulation and income inequality

    Atrazine Degradation in Pesticide-Contaminated Soils: Phytoremediation Potential

    Get PDF
    Studies were conducted in the laboratory to determine the fate of atrazine in pesticide-contaminated soils from agrochemical dealer sites. No significant differences in atrazine concentrations occurred in soils treated with atrazine individually or combinations with metolachlor and trifluralin. In a screening study carried out in soils from four agrochemical dealer sites, rapid mineralization of atrazine occurred in three out of eight soils tested, with the greatest amount occurring in Bravo rhizosphere soil (35% of the applied atrazine after 9 weeks). Suppression of atrazine mineralization in the Bravo rhizosphere soil did not occur with the addition of high concentrations of herbicide mixtures, but instead was increased. Plants had a positive impact on dissipation of aged atrazine in soil, with significantly less atrazine extractable from Kochia-vegetated soils than from nonvegetated soils
    corecore