1,952 research outputs found

    Interferometric length metrology for the dimensional control of ultra-stable Ring Laser Gyroscopes

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    We present the experimental test of a method for controlling the absolute length of the diagonals of square ring laser gyroscopes. The purpose is to actively stabilize the ring cavity geometry and to enhance the rotation sensor stability in order to reach the requirements for the detection of the relativistic Lense-Thirring effect with a ground-based array of optical gyroscopes. The test apparatus consists of two optical cavities 1.32 m in length, reproducing the features of the ring cavity diagonal resonators of large frame He-Ne ring laser gyroscopes. The proposed measurement technique is based on the use of a single diode laser, injection locked to a frequency stabilized He-Ne/Iodine frequency standard, and a single electro-optic modulator. The laser is modulated with a combination of three frequencies allowing to lock the two cavities to the same resonance frequency and, at the same time, to determine the cavity Free Spectral Range (FSR). We obtain a stable lock of the two cavities to the same optical frequency reference, providing a length stabilization at the level of 1 part in 101110^{11}, and the determination of the two FSRs with a relative precision of 0.2 ppm. This is equivalent to an error of 500 nm on the absolute length difference between the two cavities

    Spatial variability of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) yield as related to soil parameters in a small field

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    The harvested biomass of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is generally much lower than its potential; this may be due to several factors including not recovering all the biomass at harvest, weed competition, pests, disease and spatial variation of soil features. The objective of this research was to quantify the yield spatial variation of switchgrass and relate it to soil parameters, in a field of about 5 ha, in 2004 and 2005. Several thematic maps of soil parameters and biomass yield were produced using GIS and geostatistical methods. Soil parameters changed consistently within very short distances and biomass yield varied from 3 to more than 20 Mg ha(-1). This remarkable variation indicates that the potential for increasing switchgrass productivity is a real prospect. Furthermore, spatial variation of yield showed similar patterns in the 2 years (r = 0.38**), and therefore a major influence of site characteristics on switchgrass yield can be assumed to occur. Significant correlations were found between biomass yield and soil N, P, moisture and pH as well as between soil parameters. Some soil parameters such as sand content showed patchy spatial distribution. Conversely, a reliable spatial dependence could not be identified for other parameters such as P. Further research is needed

    A 1.82 m^2 ring laser gyroscope for nano-rotational motion sensing

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    We present a fully active-controlled He-Ne ring laser gyroscope, operating in square cavity 1.35 m in side. The apparatus is designed to provide a very low mechanical and thermal drift of the ring cavity geometry and is conceived to be operative in two different orientations of the laser plane, in order to detect rotations around the vertical or the horizontal direction. Since June 2010 the system is active inside the Virgo interferometer central area with the aim of performing high sensitivity measurements of environmental rotational noise. So far, continuous not attempted operation of the gyroscope has been longer than 30 days. The main characteristics of the laser, the active remote-controlled stabilization systems and the data acquisition techniques are presented. An off-line data processing, supported by a simple model of the sensor, is shown to improve the effective long term stability. A rotational sensitivity at the level of ten nanoradiants per squareroot of Hz below 1 Hz, very close to the required specification for the improvement of the Virgo suspension control system, is demonstrated for the configuration where the laser plane is horizontal

    Rotational sensitivity of the "G-Pisa" gyrolaser

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    G-Pisa is an experiment investigating the possibility to operate a high sensitivity laser gyroscope with area less than 1m21 \rm m^2 for improving the performances of the mirrors suspensions of the gravitational wave antenna Virgo. The experimental set-up consists in a He-Ne ring laser with a 4 mirrors square cavity. The laser is pumped by an RF discharge where the RF oscillator includes the laser plasma in order to reach a better stability. The contrast of the Sagnac fringes is typically above 50% and a stable regime has been reached with the laser operating both single mode or multimode. The effect of hydrogen contamination on the laser was also checked. A low-frequency sensitivity, below 1Hz1 \rm Hz, in the range of 10−8(rad/s)/Hz10^{-8} \rm {(rad / s)/ \sqrt{Hz}} has been measured.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figures, presented at the EFTF-IFCS joint conference 200

    A high sensitivity tool for geophysical applications: A geometrically locked Ring Laser Gyroscope

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    This work demonstrates that a middle size ring laser gyroscope (RLG) can be a very sensitive and robust instrument for rotational seismology, even if it operates in a quite noisy environment. The RLG has a square cavity, 1.60×1.601.60\times 1.60 m2^2, and it lies in a plane orthogonal to the Earth rotational axis. The Fabry-Perot optical cavities along the diagonals of the square were accessed and their lengths were locked to a reference laser. Through a quite simple locking circuit, we were able to keep the sensor fully operative for 14 days. The obtained long term stability is of the order of 3~nanorad/s and the short term sensitivity close is to 2~nanorad/s⋅\cdotHz−1/2^{-1/2}. These results are limited only by the noisy environment, our laboratory is located in a building downtown.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, 25 reference

    MAD2L2 promotes open chromatin in embryonic stem cells and derepresses the Dppa3 locus.

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    The chromatin of naive embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has a largely open configuration, as evident by the lack of condensed heterochromatin and the hypomethylation of DNA. Several molecular mechanisms promoting this constellation were previously identified. Here we present evidence for an important epigenetic function of MAD2L2, a protein originally known for its role in DNA damage repair, and for its requirement in germ cell development. We demonstrate using super-resolution microscopy that numerous MAD2L2 microfoci are exclusively associated with euchromatin, similar to other factors of the DNA damage response. In the absence of MAD2L2 the amount of heterochromatin demarcated by H3K9me2 was significantly increased. Among the most strongly suppressed genes was Dppa3, an ESC- and germ-cell-specific gene regulating DNA methylation. In Mad2l2-deficient ESCs 5-methylcytosine levels were globally increased, while several imprinted genes became hypomethylated and transcriptionally activated. Our results emphasize the important function of MAD2L2 for the open chromatin configuration of ESCs
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