49 research outputs found

    Differentially Private Secure Multiplication: Hiding Information in the Rubble of Noise

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    We consider the problem of private distributed multi-party multiplication. It is well-established that Shamir secret-sharing coding strategies can enable perfect information-theoretic privacy in distributed computation via the celebrated algorithm of Ben Or, Goldwasser and Wigderson (the "BGW algorithm"). However, perfect privacy and accuracy require an honest majority, that is, N2t+1N \geq 2t+1 compute nodes are required to ensure privacy against any tt colluding adversarial nodes. By allowing for some controlled amount of information leakage and approximate multiplication instead of exact multiplication, we study coding schemes for the setting where the number of honest nodes can be a minority, that is N<2t+1.N< 2t+1. We develop a tight characterization privacy-accuracy trade-off for cases where N<2t+1N < 2t+1 by measuring information leakage using {differential} privacy instead of perfect privacy, and using the mean squared error metric for accuracy. A novel technical aspect is an intricately layered noise distribution that merges ideas from differential privacy and Shamir secret-sharing at different layers.Comment: Extended version of papers presented in IEEE ISIT 2022, IEEE ISIT 2023 and TPDP 202

    Cowpea and groundnut haulms fodder trading and its lessons for multidimensional cowpea improvement for mixed crop livestock systems in West Africa

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    Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits. Significant (P < 0.05) genotypic dependent variations were observed in yields (kg/ha) of grains (537–1082) and haulms (1173–3368), though significant (P < 0.05) effects of location and year were observed. Grain and fodder yield had a tendency to be positively correlated (r = 0.26, P = 0.07). Haulms were analyzed for nitrogen (N), fiber fractions, in vitro digestibility, and metabolizable energy content. Highly significant variations were observed in all genotypic and livestock nutrition traits, although location and year had significant effects. Trade-offs between grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits were largely absent and haulm acid detergent lignin and grain yield were even inversely correlated (r = -0.28, P = 0.05), that is high grain yielders had decreased haulm lignin. However, haulm N and grain yield also tended to be negatively associated (r = -0.26, P = 0.07). Haulm fodder quality traits and haulm yield were mostly positively correlated (P < 0.05). Broad sense heritabilities for grain and fodder yield were 0.50 and 0.29, respectively, while heritability for haulm fodder quality traits ranged from 0.61 to 0.67, providing opportunities for concomitant increase in grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits. Selection of the 10 highest ranking genotypes for grain yield, haulm yield, haulm N, and haulm in vitro organic matter digestibility showed selection groups overlapping, suggesting that multi-trait selection is feasible. Economical evaluation showed that choice of primary traits is context specific, highlighting the need for identifying and targeting appropriate genotypes to fit different production systems. Considering haulm quantity and quality as traits of economic value can increase overall plant value in mixed crop-livestock systems

    Preliminary Observations on Livestock Productivity in sheep Fed Exclusively on Haulms from eleven Cultivars of Groundnut

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    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) haulms provide important fodder resources for livestock feeding in mixed croplivestock systems in developing countries (Larbi et al. 1999, Rama Devi et al. 2000, Omokanye et al. 2001). In these systems fodder shortage is considered one of the major constraints to high livestock productivity and its corollary, high income from the marketing of livestock products. Shrinking common property resources and the little or no scope to expand arable land are further limiting the availability of fodder resources in the rainfed semi-arid tropics. These factors are increasing the value of groundnut as a food-feed crop for which both pod and haulm yields and quality traits are important. Improving the productivity of groundnut can address pod as well as haulm traits, but there is a lack of information on the variability amongst cultivars for the fodder quality of their haulms. This work reported here investigated the variability in cultivar-dependent fodder quality of groundnut haulms through measurement of productivity parameters of young sheep

    Observations on Livestock Productivity in Sheep Fed Exclusively on Haulms from Ten Different Genotypes of Groundnut

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    Haulms from 10 different genotypes of groundnut were tested with growing male sheep for digestibility, intake, nitrogen retention and live weight gains. Very high daily intake levels of > 4% of sheep bodyweight were observed in all haulms. Nitrogen retention (range: 6.7 to 11.4 g/d) and live weight gains (range: 65 to 137 g/d) varied about two fold among genotypes suggesting that the choice of groundnut genotype can have a very significant effect on livestock productivity in feeding systems based on groundnut haulms. Haulm fodder quality difference were well reflected by acid detergent lignin (ADL), which accounted for 58, 39 and 72% of the variation in haulm in vivo digestibility, nitrogen retention and live weight gains, respectively. Using stepwise multiple regression procedures, combinations of haulm ADL content and in vitro digestibility and of haulm ADL content and in vitro metabolisable energy content accounted for 84% and 92% of the variation in in vivo digestibility and live weight gain, respectively. The combination of haulm nitrogen and ADL content accounted for 80% of the variation in nitrogen retention. Among the genotypes, ICGV 89104), ICGV 91114), TMV 2 and ICGV 92093 promoted highest productivity in shee

    90Y Radioembolization for Hepatic Malignancy in Patients with Previous Biliary Intervention: Multicenter Analysis of Hepatobiliary Infections

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    PurposeTo determine the frequency of hepatobiliary infections after transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium 90 (90Y) in patients with liver malignancy and a history of biliary intervention.Materials and MethodsFor this retrospective study, records of all consecutive patients with liver malignancy and history of biliary intervention treated with TARE at 14 centers between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed. Data regarding liver function, 90Y dosimetry, antibiotic prophylaxis, and bowel preparation prophylaxis were collected. Primary outcome was development of hepatobiliary infection.ResultsOne hundred twenty-six patients (84 men, 42 women; mean age, 68.8 years) with primary (n = 39) or metastatic (n = 87) liver malignancy and history of biliary intervention underwent 180 procedures with glass (92 procedures) or resin (88 procedures) microspheres. Hepatobiliary infections (liver abscesses in nine patients, cholangitis in five patients) developed in 10 of the 126 patients (7.9%) after 11 of the 180 procedures (6.1%; nine of those procedures were performed with glass microspheres). All patients required hospitalization (median stay, 12 days; range, 2–113 days). Ten patients required percutaneous abscess drainage, three patients underwent endoscopic stent placement and stone removal, and one patient needed insertion of percutaneous biliary drains. Infections resolved in five patients, four patients died (two from infection and two from cancer progression while infection was being treated), and one patient continued to receive suppressive antibiotics. Use of glass microspheres (P = .02), previous liver resection or ablation (P = .02), and younger age (P = .003) were independently predictive of higher infection risk.ConclusionInfectious complications such as liver abscess and cholangitis are uncommon but serious complications of transarterial radioembolization with 90Y in patients with liver malignancy and a history of biliary intervention.© RSNA, 2018Online supplemental material is available for this article

    Nucleolin Inhibits G4 Oligonucleotide Unwinding by Werner Helicase

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    The Werner protein (WRNp), a member of the RecQ helicase family, is strongly associated with the nucleolus, as is nucleolin (NCL), an important nucleolar constituent protein. Both WRNp and NCL respond to the effects of DNA damaging agents. Therefore, we have investigated if these nuclear proteins interact and if this interaction has a possible functional significance in DNA damage repair.Here we report that WRNp interacts with the RNA-binding protein, NCL, based on immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescent co-localization in live and fixed cells, and direct binding of purified WRNp to nucleolin. We also map the binding region to the C-terminal domains of both proteins. Furthermore, treatment of U2OS cells with 15 µM of the Topoisomerase I inhibitor, camptothecin, causes the dissociation of the nucleolin-Werner complex in the nucleolus, followed by partial re-association in the nucleoplasm. Other DNA damaging agents, such as hydroxyurea, Mitomycin C, and aphidicolin do not have these effects. Nucleolin or its C-terminal fragment affected the helicase, but not the exonuclease activity of WRNp, by inhibiting WRN unwinding of G4 tetraplex DNA structures, as seen in activity assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA).These data suggest that nucleolin may regulate G4 DNA unwinding by WRNp, possibly in response to certain DNA damaging agents. We postulate that the NCL-WRNp complex may contain an inactive form of WRNp, which is released from the nucleolus upon DNA damage. Then, when required, WRNp is released from inhibition and can participate in the DNA repair processes

    Inhaled corticosteroids in childhood asthma: the story continues

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    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of persistent asthma in children. Treatment with ICS decreases asthma mortality and morbidity, reduces symptoms, improves lung function, reduces bronchial hyperresponsiveness and reduces the number of exacerbations. The efficacy of ICS in preschool wheezing is controversial. A recent task force from the European Respiratory Society on preschool wheeze defined two different phenotypes: episodic viral wheeze, wheeze that occurs only during respiratory viral infections, and multiple-trigger wheeze, where wheeze also occurs in between viral episodes. Treatment with ICS appears to be more efficacious in the latter phenotype. Small particle ICS may offer a potential benefit in preschool children because of the favourable spray characteristics. However, the efficacy of small particle ICS in preschool children has not yet been evaluated in prospective clinical trials. The use of ICS in school children with asthma is safe with regard to systemic side effects on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, growth and bone metabolism, when used in low to medium doses. Although safety data in wheezing preschoolers is limited, the data are reassuring. Also for this age group, adverse events tend to be minimal when the ICS is used in appropriate doses

    Effect of protein and energy levels in sweet sorghum bagasse leaf residue-based diets on the performance of growing Deccani lambs

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    Sweet sorghum bagasse with leaf residue (SSBLR) based complete diets with high or low protein and high- or low-energy levels were evaluated in a 60-day growth trial using growing sheep. Twenty-eight Deccani ram lambs were divided into four groups (16.0 ± 0.59 kg) of seven each and fed low-protein high-/low-energy and high-protein high-/low-energy diets ad lib. Average daily gain (g; P < 0.05) and feed efficiency (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in lambs fed high energy than those with low-energy diets, and cost per kg gain ($) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in low protein than high-protein diets. Dry matter intake (DMI) (g/day) was not significantly affected either by protein or energy level in the diet, but dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), protein, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibilities were higher significantly (P < 0.01) in high protein/energy diets than low protein/energy diets. Crude protein (CP) intake (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in lambs fed high protein than low-protein diets. However, N balance (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in lambs fed low protein than high-protein diets. It is concluded that feeding of SSBLR-based diet with low protein (CP 12.9 %) and high energy (9.4 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/kg DM) was recommended for better performance, nitrogen retention, and returns from growing Deccani ram lambs