22 research outputs found

    Guidelines for school playgrounds: playground safety management

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    Opportunities for play must be nurtured if children are to develop physically, emotionally and socially. While playground designs have recently become more complex, they do so against a background of increased community expectations of safer environments. Fortunately, research has shown that a substantial number of accidents can be prevented and the severity of injuries reduced if greater care is taken in the design, repair and maintenance of playgrounds. This can be achieved with little conflict between the goals of maximising constructive play and minimising injury. These Guidelines are primarily written for principals, teachers and school council members. It is generally the responsibility of the building and grounds subcommittee of the school council, in consultation with the principal, to develop a school policy on school playgrounds. It is generally the task of the delegated school playground coordinator to be responsible for ongoing implementation. While this information is written for all schools, the majority of students who actually play on play equipment are primary students. The aim of these Guidelines is to improve students’ safety, while reinforcing that the primary objective of play equipment lies in its value for play and adventure. Schools are encouraged to assess the safety, quality and diversity of the recreation environment available to students. These Guidelines are intended to help schools set up a comprehensive system for the installation, maintenance, management and audit of play equipment and associated areas. Processes are provided for identifying risks and minimising playground injuries.&nbsp

    Development of a universal psycho-educational intervention to prevent common postpartum mental disorders in primiparous women: a multiple method approach

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Prevention of postnatal mental disorders in women is an important component of comprehensive health service delivery because of the substantial potential benefits for population health. However, diverse approaches to prevention of postnatal depression have had limited success, possibly because anxiety and adjustment disorders are also problematic, mental health problems are multifactorially determined, and because relationships amongst psychosocial risk factors are complex and difficult to modify. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a novel psycho-educational intervention to prevent postnatal mental disorders in mothers of firstborn infants.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Data from a variety of sources were synthesised: a literature review summarised epidemiological evidence about neglected modifiable risk factors; clinical research evidence identified successful psychosocial treatments for postnatal mental health problems; consultations with clinicians, health professionals, policy makers and consumers informed the proposed program and psychological and health promotion theories underpinned the proposed mechanisms of effect. The intervention was pilot-tested with small groups of mothers and fathers and their first newborn infants.</p> <p>Results</p> <p><it>What Were We Thinking! </it>is a psycho-educational intervention, designed for universal implementation, that addresses heightened learning needs of parents of first newborns. It re-conceptualises mental health problems in mothers of infants as reflecting unmet needs for adaptations in the intimate partner relationship after the birth of a baby, and skills to promote settled infant behaviour. It addresses these two risk factors in half-day seminars, facilitated by trained maternal and child health nurses using non-psychiatric language, in groups of up to five couples and their four-week old infants in primary care. It is designed to promote confidence and reduce mental disorders by providing skills in sustainable sleep and settling strategies, and the re-negotiation of the unpaid household workload in non-confrontational ways. Materials include a Facilitators' Handbook, creatively designed worksheets for use in seminars, and a book for couples to take home for reference. A website provides an alternative means of access to the intervention.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p><it>What Were We Thinking! </it>is a postnatal mental health intervention which has the potential to contribute to psychologically-informed routine primary postnatal health care and prevent common mental disorders in women.</p

    Initial assessment for K-12 English language support in six countries: revisiting the validity‚Äďreliability paradox

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