9,886 research outputs found

    Special Pyrheliometer Shroud Development

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    To insure that the insolation values accurately represent the input power to a power conversion unit the field of view (FOV) of the concentrator aperture and the insolation radiometer must be the same. The calculations, implementation, and results of this approach are covered. Three instruments were used to measure the insolation: an Eppley Normal Incidence Radiometer (NIP) and two versions of the kendall cavity radiometer. The shrouds used to limit the FOV of the radiometers were designed to simulate the FOV of the PDC-1 concentrater with the cold water cavity calorimeter. This technique of matching the FOV of an insolation radiometer to the FOV of a specific concentrater and receiver aperture appears to be both practical and effective. The efficiency of a power conversion unit will be too low if the insolation is measured with a radiometer which has a FOV which is larger than the FOV of the concentrator

    Radiowave scattering and ultra-long-baseline interferometry

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    Interstellar scattering can irretrievably blur the images of compact radio sources when examined with extremely high resolution. Because of this effect, diffraction limited observations of extragalactic sources with an Earth-Moon baseline will only be possible at frequencies above about 7 GHz, in which case the resolution will be approx. = to or less than 20 microarcsec. Preliminary observations to determine the potential usefulness of such resolving power are discussed. The simplest of these would consist of a search for interstellar scintillations in compact sources at 10 GHz, which would provide an effective resolution about equal to that of an Earth-Moon baseline at this frequency. Also important in this context is the development of very long baseline interferometry in near-Earth orbit, as any ultra high resolution observations, if appropriate, would require intermediate baselines for mapping

    On the infrared polarization of the Orion Nebula

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    The implications of the 10 micron polarization of the Orion Nebula were re-examined. The polarization was produced by preferential extinction in one of the well studied regions of the Kleinman-Low Nebula and/or its surroundings. In particular, the need for abnormally low temperatures in the polarizing medium was obviated. The most likely candidate for the polarizing medium was the extended region surrounding the Kleinman-Low Nebula. The degree of polarization produced by emission in the far infrared was estimated to be as large as 8 percent, although other factors could reduce the observable value

    Memory systems for signal generating photoelectric image detectors

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    Digital systems are discussed which have the capacity to handle the large amounts of information contained in a typical image. It was used with a high gain pulse counting television camera tube, with a silicon target image detector and an analog to digital converter between the detector and the memory

    Active galactic nuclei at gamma-ray energies

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    Active Galactic Nuclei can be copious extragalactic emitters of MeV-GeV-TeV gamma rays, a phenomenon linked to the presence of relativistic jets powered by a super-massive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. Most of gamma-ray emitting active galactic nuclei, with more than 1500 known at GeV energies, and more than 60 at TeV energies, are called "blazars". The standard blazar paradigm features a jet of relativistic magnetized plasma ejected from the neighborhood of a spinning and accreting super-massive black hole, close to the observer direction. Two classes of blazars are distinguished from observations: the flat-spectrum radio-quasar class (FSRQ) is characterized by strong external radiation fields, emission of broad optical lines, and dust tori. The BL Lac class (from the name of one of its members, BL Lacertae) corresponds to weaker advection-dominated flows with gamma-ray spectra dominated by the inverse Compton effect on synchrotron photons. This paradigm has been very successful for modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions of blazars. However, many fundamental issues remain, including the role of hadronic processes and the rapid variability of those BL Lac objects whose synchrotron spectrum peaks at UV or X-ray frequencies. A class of gamma-ray--emitting radio galaxies, which are thought to be the misaligned counterparts of blazars, has emerged from the results of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. Blazars and their misaligned ounterparts make up most of the >100 MeV extragalactic gamma ray background (EGB), and are uspected of being the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The future "Cherenkov Telescope Array", in synergy with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope and a wide range of telescopes in space and on he ground, will write the next chapter of blazar physics.Comment: 27 pages, 28 figures, in a topical review on gamma-ray astronomy above 100 MeV, to be published in Comptes Rendus Physique de l'Acad\'emie des Sciences (CRAS

    The role of C-terminal amidation in the membrane interactions of the anionic antimicrobial peptide, maximin H5

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    Maximin H5 is an anionic antimicrobial peptide from amphibians, which carries a C-terminal amide moiety, and was found to be moderately haemolytic (20%). The α-helicity of the peptide was 42% in the presence of lipid mimics of erythrocyte membranes and was found able to penetrate (10.8mNm(-1)) and lyse these model membranes (64 %). In contrast, the deaminated peptide exhibited lower levels of haemolysis (12%) and α-helicity (16%) along with a reduced ability to penetrate (7.8mNm(-1)) and lyse (55%) lipid mimics of erythrocyte membranes. Taken with molecular dynamic simulations and theoretical analysis, these data suggest that native maximin H5 primarily exerts its haemolytic action via the formation of an oblique orientated α-helical structure and tilted membrane insertion. However, the C-terminal deamination of maximin H5 induces a loss of tilted α-helical structure, which abolishes the ability of the peptide's N-terminal and C-terminal regions to H-bond and leads to a loss in haemolytic ability. Taken in combination, these observations strongly suggest that the C-terminal amide moiety carried by maximin H5 is required to stabilise the adoption of membrane interactive tilted structure by the peptide. Consistent with previous reports, these data show that the efficacy of interaction and specificity of maximin H5 for membranes can be attenuated by sequence modification and may assist in the development of variants of the peptide with the potential to serve as anti-infective

    Schwarzschild-de Sitter Spacetimes, McVittie Coordinates, and Trumpet Geometries

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    Trumpet geometries play an important role in numerical simulations of black hole spacetimes, which are usually performed under the assumption of asymptotic flatness. Our Universe is not asymptotically flat, however, which has motivated numerical studies of black holes in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes. We derive analytical expressions for trumpet geometries in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimes by first generalizing the static maximal trumpet slicing of the Schwarzschild spacetime to static constant mean curvature trumpet slicings of Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimes. We then switch to a comoving isotropic radial coordinate which results in a coordinate system analogous to McVittie coordinates. At large distances from the black hole the resulting metric asymptotes to a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric with an exponentially-expanding scale factor. While McVittie coordinates have another asymptotically de Sitter end as the radial coordinate goes to zero, so that they generalize the notion of a "wormhole" geometry, our new coordinates approach a horizon-penetrating trumpet geometry in the same limit. Our analytical expressions clarify the role of time-dependence, boundary conditions and coordinate conditions for trumpet slices in a cosmological context, and provide a useful test for black hole simulations in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, added referenc

    Micro-Perspectives on 19th-century Russian Living Standards

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    Russia, livings standards, economic history
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