59 research outputs found

    Addressing Machines as models of lambda-calculus

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    Turing machines and register machines have been used for decades in theoretical computer science as abstract models of computation. Also the \lambda-calculus has played a central role in this domain as it allows to focus on the notion of functional computation, based on the substitution mechanism, while abstracting away from implementation details. The present article starts from the observation that the equivalence between these formalisms is based on the Church-Turing Thesis rather than an actual encoding of \lambda-terms into Turing (or register) machines. The reason is that these machines are not well-suited for modelling \lam-calculus programs. We study a class of abstract machines that we call \emph{addressing machine} since they are only able to manipulate memory addresses of other machines. The operations performed by these machines are very elementary: load an address in a register, apply a machine to another one via their addresses, and call the address of another machine. We endow addressing machines with an operational semantics based on leftmost reduction and study their behaviour. The set of addresses of these machines can be easily turned into a combinatory algebra. In order to obtain a model of the full untyped \lambda-calculus, we need to introduce a rule that bares similarities with the \omega-rule and the rule \zeta_\beta from combinatory logic

    two factor authentication for e government services using hardware like one time password generators

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    A safe and accessible authentication technique is a prerequisite for any modern e-government application. Two-factor authentication is currently widely adopted, since it alleviates many vulnerabilities of password-based authentication. The majority of e-government systems currently make use of text messages to deliver the second authentication factor, but these messages do not constitute an adequate (secure and reliable) solution. In this paper we show how to use One-Time Passwords (OTP) generated by a per-user, ad-hoc built application installed on a smartphone to support a two-factor authentication scheme specifically targeted to e-government tasks. In particular, we develop a process for the request, generation and distribution of such an application that achieves the same security of OTP hardware devices but avoids the related distribution and management costs, requiring no dedicated hardware and relying on the pre-existing administrative infrastructure. The process is designed to be accessible by any citizen who is able to perform very basic operations on a smartphone

    Long-term, Real-life, Observational Study in Treating Outpatient Ulcerative Colitis with Golimumab

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    Background and Aims: Several studies have found Golimumab (GOL) effective and safe in the short-term treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), but few long-term data are currently available from real world. Our aim was to assess the long-term real-life efficacy and safety of GOL in managing UC outpatients in Italy. Methods: A retrospective multicenter study assessing consecutive UC outpatients treated with GOL for at least 3-month of follow-up was made. Primary endpoints were the induction and maintenance of remission in UC, defined as Mayo score 鈮2. Several secondary endpoints, including clinical response, colectomy rate, steroid free remission and mucosal healing, were also assessed during the follow-up. Results: One hundred and seventy-eight patients were enrolled and followed up for a median (IQR) time of 9 (3-18) months (mean time follow-up: 33.1卤13 months). Clinical remission was achieved in 57 (32.1%) patients: these patients continued with GOL, but only 6 patients (3.4%) were still under clinical remission with GOL at the 42nd month of follow-up. Clinical response occurred in 64 (36.4%) patients; colectomy was performed in 8 (7.8%) patients, all of them having primary failure. Steroid-free remission occurred in 23 (12.9%) patients, and mucosal healing was achieved in 29/89 (32.6%) patients. Adverse events occurred in 14 (7.9%) patients. Conclusions: Golimumab does not seem able to maintain long-term remission in UC in real life. The safety profile was good

    Association of kidney disease measures with risk of renal function worsening in patients with type 1 diabetes

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    Background: Albuminuria has been classically considered a marker of kidney damage progression in diabetic patients and it is routinely assessed to monitor kidney function. However, the role of a mild GFR reduction on the development of stage 653 CKD has been less explored in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic role of kidney disease measures, namely albuminuria and reduced GFR, on the development of stage 653 CKD in a large cohort of patients affected by T1DM. Methods: A total of 4284 patients affected by T1DM followed-up at 76 diabetes centers participating to the Italian Association of Clinical Diabetologists (Associazione Medici Diabetologi, AMD) initiative constitutes the study population. Urinary albumin excretion (ACR) and estimated GFR (eGFR) were retrieved and analyzed. The incidence of stage 653 CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or eGFR reduction > 30% from baseline was evaluated. Results: The mean estimated GFR was 98 \ub1 17 mL/min/1.73m2 and the proportion of patients with albuminuria was 15.3% (n = 654) at baseline. About 8% (n = 337) of patients developed one of the two renal endpoints during the 4-year follow-up period. Age, albuminuria (micro or macro) and baseline eGFR < 90 ml/min/m2 were independent risk factors for stage 653 CKD and renal function worsening. When compared to patients with eGFR > 90 ml/min/1.73m2 and normoalbuminuria, those with albuminuria at baseline had a 1.69 greater risk of reaching stage 3 CKD, while patients with mild eGFR reduction (i.e. eGFR between 90 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) show a 3.81 greater risk that rose to 8.24 for those patients with albuminuria and mild eGFR reduction at baseline. Conclusions: Albuminuria and eGFR reduction represent independent risk factors for incident stage 653 CKD in T1DM patients. The simultaneous occurrence of reduced eGFR and albuminuria have a synergistic effect on renal function worsening

    Impact of COVID-19 on cardiovascular testing in the United States versus the rest of the world

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    Objectives: This study sought to quantify and compare the decline in volumes of cardiovascular procedures between the United States and non-US institutions during the early phase of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the care of many non-COVID-19 illnesses. Reductions in diagnostic cardiovascular testing around the world have led to concerns over the implications of reduced testing for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Methods: Data were submitted to the INCAPS-COVID (International Atomic Energy Agency Non-Invasive Cardiology Protocols Study of COVID-19), a multinational registry comprising 909 institutions in 108 countries (including 155 facilities in 40 U.S. states), assessing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of diagnostic cardiovascular procedures. Data were obtained for April 2020 and compared with volumes of baseline procedures from March 2019. We compared laboratory characteristics, practices, and procedure volumes between U.S. and non-U.S. facilities and between U.S. geographic regions and identified factors associated with volume reduction in the United States. Results: Reductions in the volumes of procedures in the United States were similar to those in non-U.S. facilities (68% vs. 63%, respectively; p = 0.237), although U.S. facilities reported greater reductions in invasive coronary angiography (69% vs. 53%, respectively; p < 0.001). Significantly more U.S. facilities reported increased use of telehealth and patient screening measures than non-U.S. facilities, such as temperature checks, symptom screenings, and COVID-19 testing. Reductions in volumes of procedures differed between U.S. regions, with larger declines observed in the Northeast (76%) and Midwest (74%) than in the South (62%) and West (44%). Prevalence of COVID-19, staff redeployments, outpatient centers, and urban centers were associated with greater reductions in volume in U.S. facilities in a multivariable analysis. Conclusions: We observed marked reductions in U.S. cardiovascular testing in the early phase of the pandemic and significant variability between U.S. regions. The association between reductions of volumes and COVID-19 prevalence in the United States highlighted the need for proactive efforts to maintain access to cardiovascular testing in areas most affected by outbreaks of COVID-19 infection

    A universal planning system for hybrid domains

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