349 research outputs found

### The postulations Ã¡ la D'Alembert and Ã¡ la Cauchy for higher gradient continuum theories are equivalent. A review of existing results

In order to found continuum mechanics, two different postulations have been used. The first, introduced by Lagrange and Piola, starts by postulating how the work expended by internal interactions in a body depends on the virtual velocity field and its gradients. Then, by using the divergence theorem, a representation theorem is found for the volume and contact interactions which can be exerted at the boundary of the considered body. This method assumes an a priori notion of internal work, regards stress tensors as dual of virtual displacements and their gradients, deduces the concept of contact interactions and produces their representation in terms of stresses using integration by parts. The second method, conceived by Cauchy and based on the celebrated tetrahedron argument, starts by postulating the type of contact interactions which can be exerted on the boundary of every (suitably) regular part of a body. Then it proceeds by proving the existence of stress tensors from a balance-type postulate. In this paper, we review some relevant literature on the subject, discussing how the two postulations can be reconciled in the case of higher gradient theories. Finally, we underline the importance of the concept of contact surface, edge and wedge s-order forces

### Gedanken experiments for the determination of two-dimensional linear second gradient elasticity coefficients

In the present paper, a two-dimensional solid consisting of a linear elastic isotropic material, for which the deformation energy depends on the second gradient of the displacement, is considered. The strain energy is demonstrated to depend on 6 constitutive parameters: the 2 LamÂ´e constants (Î» and Î¼) and 4 more parameters (instead of 5 as it is in the 3D-case). Analytical solutions for classical problems such as heavy sheet, bending and flexure are provided. The idea is very simple: The solutions of the corresponding problem of first gradient classical case are imposed, and the corresponding forces, double forces and wedge forces are found. On the basis of such solutions, a method is outlined, which is able to identify the six constitutive parameters. Ideal (or Gedanken) experiments are designed in order to write equations having as unknowns the six constants and as known terms the values of suitable experimental measurements

### Bias extension test for pantographic sheets: numerical simulations based on second gradient shear energies

We consider a bi-dimensional sheet consisting of two orthogonal families of inextensible fibres. Using the representation due to Rivlin and Pipkin for admissible placements, i.e. placements preserving the lengths of the inextensible fibres, we numerically simulate a standard bias extension test on the sheet, solving a non-linear constrained optimization problem. Several first and second gradient deformation energy models are considered, depending on the shear angle between the fibres and on its gradient, and the results obtained are compared. The proposed numerical simulations will be helpful in designing a systematic experimental campaign aimed at characterizing the internal energy for physical realizations of the ideal pantographic structure presented in this paper

### Piezo-electromechanical smart materials with distributed arrays of piezoelectric transducers: Current and upcoming applications

This review paper intends to gather and organize a series of works which discuss the possibility of exploiting the mechanical properties of distributed arrays of piezoelectric transducers. The concept can be described as follows: on every structural member one can uniformly distribute an array of piezoelectric transducers whose electric terminals are to be connected to a suitably optimized electric waveguide. If the aim of such a modification is identified to be the suppression of mechanical vibrations then the optimal electric waveguide is identified to be the 'electric analog' of the considered structural member. The obtained electromechanical systems were called PEM (PiezoElectroMechanical) structures. The authors especially focus on the role played by Lagrange methods in the design of these analog circuits and in the study of PEM structures and we suggest some possible research developments in the conception of new devices, in their study and in their technological application. Other potential uses of PEMs, such as Structural Health Monitoring and Energy Harvesting, are described as well. PEM structures can be regarded as a particular kind of smart materials, i.e. materials especially designed and engineered to show a specific andwell-defined response to external excitations: for this reason, the authors try to find connection between PEM beams and plates and some micromorphic materials whose properties as carriers of waves have been studied recently. Finally, this paper aims to establish some links among some concepts which are used in different cultural groups, as smart structure, metamaterial and functional structural modifications, showing how appropriate would be to avoid the use of different names for similar concepts. Â© 2015 - IOS Press and the authors

### Referential description of the evolution of a 2D swarm of robots interacting with the closer neighbors. Perspectives of continuum modeling via higher gradient continua

In the present paper a discrete robotic system model whose elements interact via a simple geometric law is presented and some numerical simulations are provided and discussed. The main idea of the work is to show the resemblance between the cases of first and second neighbors interaction with (respectively) first and second gradient continuous deformable bodies. Our numerical results showed indeed that the interaction and the evolution process described is suitable to closely reproduce some basic characteristics of the behavior of bodies whose deformation energy depends on first or on higher gradients of the displacement. Moreover, some specific qualitative characteristics of the continuous deformation are also reproduced. The model introduced here will need further investigation and generalization in both theoretical and numerical directions

### Modeling Deformable Bodies Using Discrete Systems with Centroid-Based Propagating Interaction: Fracture and Crack Evolution

International audienceWe use a simple discrete system in order to model deformation and fracture within the same theoretical and numerical framework. The model displays a rich behavior, accounting for different fracture phenomena, and in particular for crack formation and growth. A comparison with standard Finite Element simulations and with the basic Griffith theory of fracture is provided. Moreover, an â€˜almost steadyâ€™ state, i.e. a long apparent equilibrium followed by an abrupt crack growth, is obtained by suitably parameterizing the system. The model can be easily generalized to higher order interactions corresponding, in the homogenized limit, to higher gradient continuum theories

### Wave propagation in pantographic 2D lattices with internal discontinuities

In the present paper we consider a 2D pantographic structure composed by two orthogonal families of Euler beams. Pantographic rectangular 'long' waveguides are considered in which imposed boundary displacements can induce the onset of traveling (possibly non-linear) waves. We performed numerical simulations concerning a set of dynamically interesting cases. The system undergoes large rotations which may involve geometrical non-linearities, possibly opening the path to appealing phenomena such as propagation of solitary waves. Boundary conditions dramatically influence the transmission of the considered waves at discontinuity surfaces. The theoretical study of this kind of objects looks critical, as the concept of pantographic 2D sheets seems to have promising possible applications in a number of fields, e.g. acoustic filters, vascular prostheses and aeronautic/aerospace panels

### NHANES newsletter ; Winter 2015-2016

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey newslette
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