72 research outputs found

    Definition and evaluation of model-free coordination of electrical vehicle charging with reinforcement learning

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    Demand response (DR) becomes critical to manage the charging load of a growing electric vehicle (EV) deployment. Initial DR studies mainly adopt model predictive control, but models are largely uncertain for the EV scenario (e.g., customer behavior). Model-free approaches, based on reinforcement learning (RL), are an attractive alternative. We propose a new Markov decision process (MDP) formulation in the RL framework, to jointly coordinate a set of charging stations. State-of-the-art algorithms either focus on a single EV, or control an aggregate of EVs in multiple steps (e.g., 1) make aggregate load decisions and 2) translate the aggregate decision to individual EVs). In contrast, our RL approach jointly controls the whole set of EVs at once. We contribute a new MDP formulation with a scalable state representation independent of the number of charging stations. Using a batch RL algorithm, fitted QQ -iteration, we learn an optimal charging policy. With simulations using real-world data, we: 1) differentiate settings in training the RL policy (e.g., the time span covered by training data); 2) compare its performance to an oracle all-knowing benchmark (providing an upper performance bound); 3) analyze performance fluctuations throughout a full year; and 4) demonstrate generalization capacity to larger sets of charging stations

    An attentive neural architecture for joint segmentation and parsing and its application to real estate ads

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    In processing human produced text using natural language processing (NLP) techniques, two fundamental subtasks that arise are (i) segmentation of the plain text into meaningful subunits (e.g., entities), and (ii) dependency parsing, to establish relations between subunits. In this paper, we develop a relatively simple and effective neural joint model that performs both segmentation and dependency parsing together, instead of one after the other as in most state-of-the-art works. We will focus in particular on the real estate ad setting, aiming to convert an ad to a structured description, which we name property tree, comprising the tasks of (1) identifying important entities of a property (e.g., rooms) from classifieds and (2) structuring them into a tree format. In this work, we propose a new joint model that is able to tackle the two tasks simultaneously and construct the property tree by (i) avoiding the error propagation that would arise from the subtasks one after the other in a pipelined fashion, and (ii) exploiting the interactions between the subtasks. For this purpose, we perform an extensive comparative study of the pipeline methods and the new proposed joint model, reporting an improvement of over three percentage points in the overall edge F1 score of the property tree. Also, we propose attention methods, to encourage our model to focus on salient tokens during the construction of the property tree. Thus we experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of attentive neural architectures for the proposed joint model, showcasing a further improvement of two percentage points in edge F1 score for our application.Comment: Preprint - Accepted for publication in Expert Systems with Application

    Topical word importance for fast keyphrase extraction

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    We propose an improvement on a state-of-the-art keyphrase extraction algorithm, Topical PageRank (TPR), incorporating topical information from topic models. While the original algorithm requires a random walk for each topic in the topic model being used, ours is independent of the topic model, computing but a single PageRank for each text regardless of the amount of topics in the model. This increases the speed drastically and enables it for use on large collections of text using vast topic models, while not altering performance of the original algorithm

    When topic models disagree: keyphrase extraction with mulitple topic models

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    We explore how the unsupervised extraction of topic-related keywords benefits from combining multiple topic models. We show that averaging multiple topic models, inferred from different corpora, leads to more accurate keyphrases than when using a single topic model and other state-of-the-art techniques. The experiments confirm the intuitive idea that a prerequisite for the significant benefit of combining multiple models is that the models should be sufficiently different, i.e., they should provide distinct contexts in terms of topical word importance

    Knowledge Base Population using Semantic Label Propagation

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    A crucial aspect of a knowledge base population system that extracts new facts from text corpora, is the generation of training data for its relation extractors. In this paper, we present a method that maximizes the effectiveness of newly trained relation extractors at a minimal annotation cost. Manual labeling can be significantly reduced by Distant Supervision, which is a method to construct training data automatically by aligning a large text corpus with an existing knowledge base of known facts. For example, all sentences mentioning both 'Barack Obama' and 'US' may serve as positive training instances for the relation born_in(subject,object). However, distant supervision typically results in a highly noisy training set: many training sentences do not really express the intended relation. We propose to combine distant supervision with minimal manual supervision in a technique called feature labeling, to eliminate noise from the large and noisy initial training set, resulting in a significant increase of precision. We further improve on this approach by introducing the Semantic Label Propagation method, which uses the similarity between low-dimensional representations of candidate training instances, to extend the training set in order to increase recall while maintaining high precision. Our proposed strategy for generating training data is studied and evaluated on an established test collection designed for knowledge base population tasks. The experimental results show that the Semantic Label Propagation strategy leads to substantial performance gains when compared to existing approaches, while requiring an almost negligible manual annotation effort.Comment: Submitted to Knowledge Based Systems, special issue on Knowledge Bases for Natural Language Processin

    Predefined Sparseness in Recurrent Sequence Models

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    Inducing sparseness while training neural networks has been shown to yield models with a lower memory footprint but similar effectiveness to dense models. However, sparseness is typically induced starting from a dense model, and thus this advantage does not hold during training. We propose techniques to enforce sparseness upfront in recurrent sequence models for NLP applications, to also benefit training. First, in language modeling, we show how to increase hidden state sizes in recurrent layers without increasing the number of parameters, leading to more expressive models. Second, for sequence labeling, we show that word embeddings with predefined sparseness lead to similar performance as dense embeddings, at a fraction of the number of trainable parameters.Comment: the SIGNLL Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning (CoNLL, 2018
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