14 research outputs found

    The evolution of dam-litter microbial flora from birth to 60 days of age

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    BACKGROUND: Early bacterial colonization in puppies is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Although the topic is of considerable interest, a big gap in knowledge still exists on the understanding of timing and features of neonatal gut colonization. Thence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dam and litter microbial flora, in vaginally delivered puppies, from birth to two months of age. Bacteria were identified using MALDI-TOF, an accurate and sensitive method, and cluster analysis of data provided a new insight on the investigated topic. METHODS: Six dam-litter units of two medium size breeds were enrolled in the study. Vaginal and colostrum/milk samples were collected from dams after delivery and 48h post-partum, while rectal samples were taken from dams and puppies after delivery and at day 2, 30 and 60 (T2, T30 and T60, respectively) post-partum. Bacterial isolation and identification were performed following standard techniques, then the data were analyzed using a new approach based on bacterial genus population composition obtained using a wide MALDI-TOF screening and cluster analysis. RESULTS: Forty-eight bacteriological samples were collected from the dams and 145 from their 42 puppies. Colostrum/milk samples (n = 12) showed a bacterial growth mainly limited to few colonies. Staphylococci, Enterococci, E. coli, Proteus spp. were most frequently isolated. All vaginal swabs (n = 12) resulted in bacteria isolation (medium to high growth). Streptococci, Enterococci, E. coli were the most frequently detected. E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. were often obtained from dams’ and puppies’ rectal swabs. Clostridia, not isolated in any other sampling site, were rarely found (n = 3) in meconium while they were more frequently isolated at later times (T2: n = 30; T30: n = 17; T60: n = 27). Analysis of the bacterial genus pattern over time showed a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.01) in the heterogeneity of microbial composition in all time points if compared to birth for each dam-litter unit. These results were confirmed with cluster analysis and two-dimensional scaling. CONCLUSION: This novel data analysis suggests a fundamental role of the individual dam in seeding and shaping the microbiome of the litter. Thus, modulating the dam’s microbiota may positively impact the puppy microbiota and benefit their health. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12917-022-03199-3

    Psychological treatments and psychotherapies in the neurorehabilitation of pain. Evidences and recommendations from the italian consensus conference on pain in neurorehabilitation

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    BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognized that treating pain is crucial for effective care within neurological rehabilitation in the setting of the neurological rehabilitation. The Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation was constituted with the purpose identifying best practices for us in this context. Along with drug therapies and physical interventions, psychological treatments have been proven to be some of the most valuable tools that can be used within a multidisciplinary approach for fostering a reduction in pain intensity. However, there is a need to elucidate what forms of psychotherapy could be effectively matched with the specific pathologies that are typically addressed by neurorehabilitation teams. OBJECTIVES: To extensively assess the available evidence which supports the use of psychological therapies for pain reduction in neurological diseases. METHODS: A systematic review of the studies evaluating the effect of psychotherapies on pain intensity in neurological disorders was performed through an electronic search using PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Based on the level of evidence of the included studies, recommendations were outlined separately for the different conditions. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 2352 results and the final database included 400 articles. The overall strength of the recommendations was medium/low. The different forms of psychological interventions, including Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, cognitive or behavioral techniques, Mindfulness, hypnosis, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Brief Interpersonal Therapy, virtual reality interventions, various forms of biofeedback and mirror therapy were found to be effective for pain reduction in pathologies such as musculoskeletal pain, fibromyalgia, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Central Post-Stroke pain, Phantom Limb Pain, pain secondary to Spinal Cord Injury, multiple sclerosis and other debilitating syndromes, diabetic neuropathy, Medically Unexplained Symptoms, migraine and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological interventions and psychotherapies are safe and effective treatments that can be used within an integrated approach for patients undergoing neurological rehabilitation for pain. The different interventions can be specifically selected depending on the disease being treated. A table of evidence and recommendations from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation is also provided in the final part of the pape

    What is the role of the placebo effect for pain relief in neurorehabilitation? Clinical implications from the Italian consensus conference on pain in neurorehabilitation

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    Background: It is increasingly acknowledged that the outcomes of medical treatments are influenced by the context of the clinical encounter through the mechanisms of the placebo effect. The phenomenon of placebo analgesia might be exploited to maximize the efficacy of neurorehabilitation treatments. Since its intensity varies across neurological disorders, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCP) summarized the studies on this field to provide guidance on its use. Methods: A review of the existing reviews and meta-analyses was performed to assess the magnitude of the placebo effect in disorders that may undergo neurorehabilitation treatment. The search was performed on Pubmed using placebo, pain, and the names of neurological disorders as keywords. Methodological quality was assessed using a pre-existing checklist. Data about the magnitude of the placebo effect were extracted from the included reviews and were commented in a narrative form. Results: 11 articles were included in this review. Placebo treatments showed weak effects in central neuropathic pain (pain reduction from 0.44 to 0.66 on a 0-10 scale) and moderate effects in postherpetic neuralgia (1.16), in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (1.45), and in pain associated to HIV (1.82). Moderate effects were also found on pain due to fibromyalgia and migraine; only weak short-term effects were found in complex regional pain syndrome. Confounding variables might have influenced these results. Clinical implications: These estimates should be interpreted with caution, but underscore that the placebo effect can be exploited in neurorehabilitation programs. It is not necessary to conceal its use from the patient. Knowledge of placebo mechanisms can be used to shape the doctor-patient relationship, to reduce the use of analgesic drugs and to train the patient to become an active agent of the therapy

    Does Bacteria Colonization of Canine Newborns Start in the Uterus?

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    The assumption that requires the uterus to be a sterile environment to sustain a successful pregnancy has been recently challenged in humans, and is still under debate. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria can be isolated from the pregnant uterus and from amniotic fluid and meconium of healthy canine fetuses at term, delivered through cesarean section. Fifteen dams of different breed, age and parity, undergoing either elective (n = 10) or emergency (n = 5) cesarean section after a healthy pregnancy, were included in the study. Swabs for bacterial culture were collected from the uterus, and from amniotic fluid and meconium. Bacteria were isolated from all the sampled sites and materials, irrespective of cesarean type. In most cases, different bacteria were isolated from the different sites. Acinetobacter spp., coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Bacillus spp. were frequently found while Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus spp., Moraxella spp., Macrococcus spp., Glutamicibacter spp., Stenotrophomonas spp. and Psychrobacter spp. were only occasionally identified. Our data show that uterus and fetuses may not be sterile in healthy term canine pregnancies

    Challenging the hypothesis of in utero microbiota acquisition in healthy canine and feline pregnancies at term : preliminary data

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    Simple SummaryThis preliminary study aimed to assess the presence of bacteria in pregnancy tissues belonging to healthy canine and feline feto-maternal units at term. Specifically, it included bitches and queens undergoing elective cesarean sections and their first extracted fetus. The placental side of the endometrium, amniotic fluid, and meconium were sampled as tissue representative of the intra-uterine environment during pregnancy. Sampling and laboratory protocols were elaborated to contrast the possibility for contamination and included strict selection criteria (only elective cesarean sections, no recent treatments with antimicrobials), sterility during sample collection, and sampling and laboratory controls. Samples were processed using both culture and molecular techniques (16S rRNA bacterial gene sequencing). When positive, culture revealed the presence of bacteria that are common contaminants and sequencing yielded a very low bacterial load. A difference was highlighted between canine and feline samples, suggesting a possible contamination from the skin of the dam, although the small sample size prevents any definitive conclusion. This study suggests that healthy canine and feline fetuses might develop in the presence of low amounts of bacterial components, although future research should include stricter protocols to check for contamination and provide information on bacterial viability.At present, there are no data on the presence of bacteria in healthy canine and feline pregnancies at term. Here, we investigated the uterine microbiome in bitches (n = 5) and queens (n = 3) undergoing elective cesarean section in two facilities. Samples included swabs from the endometrium, amniotic fluid, and meconium, and environmental swabs of the surgical tray as controls. Culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to investigate the presence of bacteria. Culture was positive for 34.3% of samples (uterus n = 3, amniotic fluid n = 2, meconium n = 4, controls n = 0), mostly with low growth of common contaminant bacteria. With sequencing techniques, the bacterial abundance was significantly lower than in environmental controls (p 0.05). Dominant phyla were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria in different proportions based on tissue and species. Culture and sequencing results suggest that the bacterial biomass is very low in healthy canine and feline pregnancies at term, that bacteria likely originate from contamination from the dam's skin, and that the presence of viable bacteria could not be confirmed most of the time

    Effect of sterilization on the canine vagina microbiota: a pilot study

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    Background: Surgical sterilization is the most effective method of contraception for dogs. It also prevents pyometra and reduces the risk of mammary tumour development. However, this procedure also has negative effects, such as urinary incontinence. Steroid hormone deprivation following gonadectomy could also affect canine vaginal mucosa conditions and the microbial community colonizing the vaginal tract. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the vaginal cytology and microbial community of two groups of bitches, including 11 in anoestrus and 10 sterilized bitches (post-pubertal sterilization in the last 4 years). Bacteria were identified through metataxonomic analysis, amplifying the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene, and culturing methods. Results: Vaginal mucosa cytology was suggestive of dystrophic conditions in sterilized bitches, whereas a typical anoestrus pattern with parabasal and intermediate cells was appreciable in anoestrous animals. Metataxonomic analysis revealed large inter-individual variability. Salmonella, Mycoplasma and Staphylococcus were present in moderate quantities in almost all the samples in both groups. Mollicutes (class level) and Tenericutes (phylum level) were commonly present in moderate quantities in anoestrus samples, whereas these microbes were present at high levels in a single sample from the sterilized group. Based on culturing, a higher number of different species were isolated from the anoestrous bitches, and Mycoplasma canis was exclusively identified in an anoestrous bitch. Staphylococcus spp. was the most frequently isolated genus in both groups, followed by Streptococcus spp., and, among gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia spp. and Haemophilus spp. A comparison of the numbers of the most frequently isolated genera of bacteria from vaginal cultures of bitches revealed that Pasteurella and Proteus were the most frequently identified in sterilized animals based on metataxonomic analysis (p-value = 0.0497 and 0.0382, respectively), whereas Streptococcus was significantly and most frequently isolated from anoestrous bitches using culture methods (p value = 0.0436). Conclusions: In this preliminary investigation, no global patterns of the vaginal bacteria community were noted that characterized the condition of the bitches; however, cytology suggested local modifications. Sterilization after puberty caused minimal alterations in the vaginal microbial community of bitches within 4 years after surgery
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