1,940 research outputs found

    Socioeconomic status and site-specific cancer incidence, a Bayesian approach in a French Cancer Registries Network study

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    International audienceThe aim of this study was to identify and compare cancer sites whose incidence is influenced by social deprivation. The study population comprised 189 144 cases of cancer diagnosed between 2006 and 2009, recorded in member registries of the French Network of Cancer Registries. Social environment was assessed at an aggregate level using the European Deprivation Index. The association between incidence and socioeconomic status was assessed by a geographical Bayesian Poisson model enabling a reduction of the overall variability and smoothing of the relative risks by sharing information provided by multiple geographic units. For cancers of the stomach, liver, lips-mouth-pharynx, and lung, a higher incidence in deprived populations was found for both sexes as well as for cancers of the larynx, esophagus, pancreas, and bladder in men and cervical cancer in women. For melanoma, prostate, testis, ovarian, and breast cancer, a higher incidence was observed in affluent populations. The highest relative risks of the lowest social class compared with the highest social class were found for larynx [relative risk (RR) = 1.67 (1.43-1.95)], lips-mouth-pharynx [RR = 1.89 (1.72-2.07)], and lung cancer [RR = 1.59 (1.50-1.68)] in men and for cervix [RR = 1.62 (1.40-1.88)] and lips-mouth-pharynx [RR = 1.56 (1.30-1.86)] cancer in women. By estimating the burden of social deprivation on cancer incidence throughout France, this study enables us to measure the gains that could be achieved by implementing targeted prevention efforts

    Aircraft Electrical Wiring Monitoring System

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    International audienceThe cumulated lengths of electrical cables continuously increases in aircrafts and trucks: now up to 10kilometers in a modern truck, 40 km in a helicopter or in a fighter aircraft and 500 km in a modern civiltransport aircraft such as A380. Electrical wiring is a critical part in the nominal operation of a system. Theimportance of the wired network has thus grown to the same level as the systems it is connected to [1].Regarding the increasing complexity of the electric system (increase in the number of electric loads, in thesupply voltages), the regulation authorities (FAA, Federal Aviation Administration and EASA, European AviationSafety Agency ) now require to consider aircrafts’ electrical wiring as a system on its own, named EWIS(Electrical Wiring Interconnection System)

    Development of a cross-cultural deprivation index in five European countries.

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    BACKGROUND: Despite a concerted policy effort in Europe, social inequalities in health are a persistent problem. Developing a standardised measure of socioeconomic level across Europe will improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and causes of inequalities. This will facilitate developing, implementing and assessing new and more effective policies, and will improve the comparability and reproducibility of health inequality studies among countries. This paper presents the extension of the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a standardised measure first developed in France, to four other European countries-Italy, Portugal, Spain and England, using available 2001 and 1999 national census data. METHODS AND RESULTS: The method previously tested and validated to construct the French EDI was used: first, an individual indicator for relative deprivation was constructed, defined by the minimal number of unmet fundamental needs associated with both objective (income) poverty and subjective poverty. Second, variables available at both individual (European survey) and aggregate (census) levels were identified. Third, an ecological deprivation index was constructed by selecting the set of weighted variables from the second step that best correlated with the individual deprivation indicator. CONCLUSIONS: For each country, the EDI is a weighted combination of aggregated variables from the national census that are most highly correlated with a country-specific individual deprivation indicator. This tool will improve both the historical and international comparability of studies, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying social inequalities in health and implementation of intervention to tackle social inequalities in health

    Laser monitoring system for the CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter

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    We report on the multiple wavelength laser monitoring system designed for the CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter read-out with avalanche photodiodes (Barrel calorimeters) and vacuum phototriodes (End Cap calorimeters). Results are presented for the test beam performance of the system designed to achieve 0.5% relative inter-calibration of the optical transmittance for lead tungstate scintillation emission over nearly 80 000 channels. The system operates in continuous measurement cycles to follow each crystal?s evolution under irradiation and recovery periods foreseen during operation at the LHC

    Evolutionary Plasticity of Polycomb/Trithorax Response Elements in Drosophila Species

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    cis-Regulatory DNA elements contain multiple binding sites for activators and repressors of transcription. Among these elements are enhancers, which establish gene expression states, and Polycomb/Trithorax response elements (PREs), which take over from enhancers and maintain transcription states of several hundred developmentally important genes. PREs are essential to the correct identities of both stem cells and differentiated cells. Evolutionary differences in cis-regulatory elements are a rich source of phenotypic diversity, and functional binding sites within regulatory elements turn over rapidly in evolution. However, more radical evolutionary changes that go beyond motif turnover have been difficult to assess. We used a combination of genome-wide bioinformatic prediction and experimental validation at specific loci, to evaluate PRE evolution across four Drosophila species. Our results show that PRE evolution is extraordinarily dynamic. First, we show that the numbers of PREs differ dramatically between species. Second, we demonstrate that functional binding sites within PREs at conserved positions turn over rapidly in evolution, as has been observed for enhancer elements. Finally, although it is theoretically possible that new elements can arise out of nonfunctional sequence, evidence that they do so is lacking. We show here that functional PREs are found at nonorthologous sites in conserved gene loci. By demonstrating that PRE evolution is not limited to the adaptation of preexisting elements, these findings document a novel dimension of cis-regulatory evolution

    Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

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    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function √į√į¬•with constraints√į √į √į¬• ¬• √įand√į¬ī√į¬• = √į. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV