11 research outputs found

    Reliability and construct validity of a composite pain scale for rabbit (CANCRS) in a clinical environment

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    A composite pain scale for assessing and quantifying pain in rabbits (CANCRS) has been designed merging the Rabbit Grimace Scale (RbtGS) and a scale including clinical parameters (CPS). Construct validity and inter-rater reliability were assessed for CANCRS, for RbtGS and for CPS, in order to test their potential to detect pain in a clinical setting. Rabbits (n = 116) were either hybrids or purebreds and they were independently evaluated by two raters, who could be veterinarians (V) or veterinary medicine students (S). Score intervals determined four pain classes (No pain, Discomfort, Moderate pain and Severe pain) that matched presumptive pain classes associated with some pathological conditions. A chi-square test was used to assess the construct validity of the scales by checking how frequently scale results and presumptive pain classes matched. Sixty-nine patients were evaluated by one V and one S, whereas forty-seven rabbits were assessed by two V, in order to test inter-rater reliability. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test reliability of the scales, whereas Cohen's kappa tested inter-rater agreement for each parameter of the CANCRS. Construct validity results show that CANCRS and RbtGS efficiently reveal pain (P ≤ 0.05), while CPS does not (p > 0.05). Inter-rater reliability was very good for both CANCRS and CPS (ICC 0.88 V-V, 0.94 between V-S; ICC 0.97 V-V, 0.91 V-S) and good for RbtGS (ICC 0.77 V-V, 0.88 V-S); therefore, CPS reproducibility was better between veterinarians and students than between veterinarians. Inter-rater agreement between veterinarians and veterinary medicine students was moderate to very good for all the parameters included in the CANCRS (Cohen's kappa >0,60). In conclusion, it is possible to state that the CANCRS has construct validity and it is a reliable tool for use in clinical practice, when coping with many rabbits with morphological differences. It is easy and fast to use and enriches the RbtGS with some clinical parameters that should be monitored during any clinical examination, allowing for capture of the multidimensional aspect of pain

    Effects of Intratesticular Lidocaine in Pet Rabbits Undergoing Orchiectomy

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    The use of local anesthetics for castration is both simple and cost-effective, and it may contribute to reducing the anesthetic requirements. Despite its common use in clinical practice, the literature regarding the effects of intratesticular lidocaine in rabbits is limited. In this study, nine rabbits per group were assigned to intratesticularly receive either 2% lidocaine (0.05 mL/kg into each testicle) or an equivalent volume of saline prior to elective orchiectomy. Anesthesia was induced by intranasal administration of ketamine, medetomidine, and butorphanol. During intraoperative assessment, no significant differences in vital parameters (heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral saturation of oxygen) were observed between the groups. However, rabbits receiving intratesticular saline displayed a higher incidence of responses to surgical stimuli. Postoperative pain was evaluated using the composite Centro Animali Non Convenzionali Rabbit Scale (CANCRS), revealing a significantly lower score at the initial post-surgery assessment in rabbits treated with intratesticular lidocaine. All subjects exhibited rapid resumption of food intake and fecal output. While all rabbits demonstrated satisfactory perioperative performances, the use of intratesticular lidocaine was associated with a diminished response to surgical stimuli. Consequently, this practice has the potential to reduce the requirement for additional anesthetics or analgesics, promoting faster recovery

    Role of rhBMP-7, Fibronectin, And Type I Collagen in Dental Implant Osseointegration Process: An Initial Pilot Study on Minipig Animals

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    Background: The biological factors involved in dental implant osseointegration need to be investigated to improve implant success. Methods: Twenty-four implants were inserted into the tibias of six minipigs. Bone samples were obtained at 7, 14, and 56 days. Biomolecular analyses evaluated mRNA of BMP-4, -7, Transforming Growth Factor-β2, Interleukin-1β, and Osteocalcin in sites treated with rhBMP-7, Type 1 Collagen, or Fibronectin (FN). Inflammation and osteogenesis were evaluated by histological analyses. Results: At 7 and 14 days, BMP-4 and BMP-7 increased in the sites prepared with rhBMP-7 and FN. BMP-7 remained greater at 56 days in rhBMP-7 and FN sites. BPM-4 at 7 and 14 days increased in Type 1 Collagen sites; BMP-7 increased from day 14. FN increased the TGF-β2 at all experimental times, whilst the rhBMP-7 only did so up to 7 days. IL-1β increased only in collagen-treated sites from 14 days. Osteocalcin was high in FN-treated sites. Neutrophilic granulocytes characterized the inflammatory infiltrate at 7 days, and mononuclear cells at 14 and 56 days. Conclusions: This initial pilot study, in a novel way, evidenced that Type 1 Collagen induced inflammation and did not stimulate bone production; conversely FN or rhBMP-7 showed neo-osteogenetic and anti-inflammatory properties when directly added into implant bone site

    Main causes of death of free-ranging bats in Turin province (North-Western Italy): gross and histological findings and emergent virus surveillance

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    Abstract Background Bats are recognized as reservoir species for multiple viruses. However, little is known on bats’ health and mortality. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the main causes of death of bats from Turin province (North-western Italy) and to describe gross and histopathological lesions potentially associated with the presence of selected bat viruses. Results A total of 71 bats belonging to 9 different species of the families Vespertilionidae and Molossidae were necropsied and samples of the main organs were submitted to histopathological examination. Also, aliquots of the small intestine, liver, spleen, lung, and brain were collected and submitted to biomolecular investigation for the identification of Coronaviridae, Poxviridae, Reoviridae (Mammalian orthoreovirus species), Rhabdoviridae (Vaprio ledantevirus and Lyssavirus species) and Kobuvirus. The majority of bats died from traumatic lesions due to unknown trauma or predation (n = 40/71, 56.3%), followed by emaciation (n = 13/71,18.3%). The main observed gross lesions were patagium and skin lesions (n = 23/71, 32.4%), forelimbs fractures (n = 15/71, 21.1%) and gastric distension (n = 10/71,14.1%). Histologically, the main lesions consisted of lymphoplasmacytic pneumonia (n = 24/71, 33.8%), skin/patagium dermatitis (n = 23/71, 32.4%), liver steatosis and hepatitis (n = 12, 16.9%), and white pulp depletion in the spleen (n = 7/71, 9.8%). Regarding emergent bat viruses, only poxvirus (n = 2, 2.8%) and orthoreovirus (n = 12/71, 16.9%) were detected in a low percentage of bats. Conclusions Trauma is the main lesion observed in bats collected in Turin province (North-western Italy) associated with forelimb fractures and the detected viral positivity rate seems to suggest that they did not represent a threat for human health

    Molecular Surveillance for Bocaparvoviruses and Bufaviruses in the European Hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

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    The presence of bocaparvoviruses (BoVs) and bufaviruses (BuVs) in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) was investigated by screening duodenal and liver samples collected from 183 carcasses, delivered to wildlife rescue centers located in northwestern Italy. BoV DNA was detected in 15 animals (8.2%), with prevalences of 7.1% (13/183) and 2.7% (5/183) in intestine and liver samples, respectively. Upon the sequence analyses of the NS1 gene, two highly divergent BoVs (65.5-67.8% nt identities) were identified. Fourteen strains showed the highest identity (98.3-99.4% nt) to the hedgehog BoV strains recently detected in China in Amur hedgehogs (Erinaceus amurensis), whilst four strains were genetically related (98.9-99.4% nt identities) to the porcine BoVs identified in pigs and classified in the species Bocaparvovirus ungulate 4, which included related viruses also found in rats, minks, shrews, and mice. BuV DNA was detected in the duodenal samples of two hedgehogs, with a prevalence rate of 1.1%. The nearly full-length genome of two BuV strains, Hedgehog/331DU-2022/ITA and Hedgehog/1278DU/2019/ITA, was reconstructed. Upon phylogenetic analysis based on the NS and VP aa sequences, the Italian hedgehog BuVs tightly clustered with the BuVs recently identified in the Chinese Amur hedgehogs, within a potential novel candidate species of the genus Protoparvovirus