38 research outputs found

### Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and criticality of an elliptic deformation of the sine-Gordon model

We introduce and study the properties of a periodic model interpolating
between the sine-- and the sinh--Gordon theories in $1+1$ dimensions. This
model shows the peculiarities, due to the preservation of the functional form
of their potential across RG flows, of the two limiting cases: the sine-Gordon,
not having conventional order/magnetization at finite temperature, but
exhibiting Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition; and the
sinh-Gordon, not having a phase transition, but being integrable. The
considered interpolation, which we term as {\em sn-Gordon} model, is performed
with potentials written in terms of Jacobi functions. The critical properties
of the sn-Gordon theory are discussed by a renormalization-group approach. The
critical points, except the sinh-Gordon one, are found to be of BKT type.
Explicit expressions for the critical coupling as a function of the elliptic
modulus are given.Comment: v2, 10 pages, 8 figures, accepted in J. Phys.

### Topological phase transitions in four dimensions

We show that four-dimensional systems may exhibit a topological phase transition analogous to the well-known Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless vortex unbinding transition in two-dimensional systems. We study a suitable generalization of the sine-Gordon model in four dimensions and the renormalization group flow equation of its couplings, showing that the critical value of the frequency is the square of the corresponding value in 2D. The value of the anomalous dimension at the critical point is determined (\u3b7=1/32) and a conjecture for the universal jump of the superfluid stiffness (4/\u3c02) presented

### Critical exponents of O(N) models in fractional dimensions

We compute critical exponents of O(N) models in fractal dimensions between
two and four, and for continuos values of the number of field components N, in
this way completing the RG classification of universality classes for these
models. In d=2 the N-dependence of the correlation length critical exponent
gives us the last piece of information needed to establish a RG derivation of
the Mermin-Wagner theorem. We also report critical exponents for multi-critical
universality classes in the cases N>1 and N=0. Finally, in the large-N limit
our critical exponents correctly approach those of the spherical model,
allowing us to set N~100 as threshold for the quantitative validity of leading
order large-N estimates.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, reference adde

### Pseudo-Periodic Natural Higgs Inflation

Inflationary cosmology represents a well-studied framework to describe the
expansion of space in the early universe, as it explains the origin of the
large-scale structure of the cosmos and the isotropy of the cosmic microwave
background radiation. The recent detection of the Higgs boson renewed research
activities based on the assumption that the inflaton could be identified with
the Higgs field. At the same time, the question whether the inflationary
potential can be be extended to the electroweak scale and whether it should be
necessarily chosen ad hoc in order to be physically acceptable are at the
center of an intense debate. Here, we perform the slow-roll analysis of the
so-called Massive Natural Inflation (MNI) model which has three adjustable
parameters, the explicit mass term, a Fourier amplitude u, and a frequency
parameter $\beta$, in addition to a constant term of the potential. This theory
has the advantage to present a structure of infinite non-degenerate minima and
is amenable to an easy integration of high-energy modes. We show that, using
PLANCK data, one can fix, in the large $\beta$-region, the parameters of the
model in a unique way. We also demonstrate that the value for the parameters
chosen at the cosmological scale does not influence the results at the
electroweak scale. We argue that other models can have similar properties both
at cosmological and electroweak scales, but with the MNI model one can complete
the theory towards low energies and easily perform the integration of modes up
to the electroweak scale, producing the correct order-of-magnitude for the
Higgs mass.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures, published in Nuclear Physics

### Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless Phase Transitions with Long-Range Couplings

The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition is the paradigmatic example of a topological phase transition without symmetry breaking, where a quasiordered phase, characterized by a power-law scaling of the correlation functions at low temperature, is disrupted by the proliferation of topological excitations above the critical temperature TBKT. In this Letter, we consider the effect of long-range decaying couplings ∼r-2-σ on the BKT transition. After pointing out the relevance of this nontrivial problem, we discuss the phase diagram, which is far richer than the corresponding short-range one. It features - for 7/4<2 - a quasiordered phase in a finite temperature range TcTBKT. The transition temperature Tc displays unique universal features quite different from those of the traditional, short-range XY model. Given the universal nature of our findings, they may be observed in current experimental realizations in 2D atomic, molecular, and optical quantum systems

### Local topological moves determine global diffusion properties of hyperbolic higher-order networks

From social interactions to the human brain, higher-order networks are key to describe the underlying network geometry and topology of many complex systems. While it is well known that network structure strongly affects its function, the role that network topology and geometry has on the emerging dynamical properties of higher-order networks is yet to be clarified. In this perspective, the spectral dimension plays a key role since it determines the effective dimension for diffusion processes on a network. Despite its relevance, a theoretical understanding of which mechanisms lead to a finite spectral dimension, and how this can be controlled, represents nowadays still a challenge and is the object of intense research. Here we introduce two non-equilibrium models of hyperbolic higher-order networks and we characterize their network topology and geometry by investigating the interwined appearance of small-world behavior, $\delta$-hyperbolicity and community structure. We show that different topological moves determining the non-equilibrium growth of the higher-order hyperbolic network models induce tunable values of the spectral dimension, showing a rich phenomenology which is not displayed in random graph ensembles. In particular, we observe that, if the topological moves used to construct the higher-order network increase the area$/$volume ratio, the spectral dimension continuously decreases, while the opposite effect is observed if the topological moves decrease the area$/$volume ratio. Our work reveals a new link between the geometry of a network and its diffusion properties, contributing to a better understanding of the complex interplay between network structure and dynamics

### Detecting composite orders in layered models via machine learning

Determining the phase diagram of systems consisting of smaller subsystems 'connected' via a tunable coupling is a challenging task relevant for a variety of physical settings. A general question is whether new phases, not present in the uncoupled limit, may arise. We use machine learning and a suitable quasidistance between different points of the phase diagram to study layered spin models, in which the spin variables constituting each of the uncoupled systems (to which we refer as layers) are coupled to each other via an interlayer coupling. In such systems, in general, composite order parameters involving spins of different layers may emerge as a consequence of the interlayer coupling. We focus on the layered Ising and Ashkin–Teller models as a paradigmatic case study, determining their phase diagram via the application of a machine learning algorithm to the Monte Carlo data. Remarkably our technique is able to correctly characterize all the system phases also in the case of hidden order parameters, i.e. order parameters whose expression in terms of the microscopic configurations would require additional preprocessing of the data fed to the algorithm. We correctly retrieve the three known phases of the Ashkin–Teller model with ferromagnetic couplings, including the phase described by a composite order parameter. For the bilayer and trilayer Ising models the phases we find are only the ferromagnetic and the paramagnetic ones. Within the approach we introduce, owing to the construction of convolutional neural networks, naturally suitable for layered image-like data with arbitrary number of layers, no preprocessing of the Monte Carlo data is needed, also with regard to its spatial structure. The physical meaning of our results is discussed and compared with analytical data, where available. Yet, the method can be used without any a priori knowledge of the phases one seeks to find and can be applied to other models and structures

### Interplay of spin waves and vortices in the two-dimensional XY model at small vortex-core energy

The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) mechanism describes universal vortex unbinding in many two-dimensional systems, including the paradigmatic XY model. However, most of these systems present a complex interplay between excitations at different length scales that complicates theoretical calculations of nonuniversal thermodynamic quantities. These difficulties may be overcome by suitably modifying the initial conditions of the BKT flow equations to account for noncritical fluctuations at small length scales. In this work, we perform a systematic study of the validity and limits of this two-step approach by constructing optimised initial conditions for the BKT flow. We find that the two-step approach can accurately reproduce the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the traditional XY model. To systematically study the interplay between vortices and spin-wave excitations, we introduce a modified XY model with increased vortex fugacity. We present large-scale Monte Carlo simulations of the spin stiffness and vortex density for this modified XY model and show that even at large vortex fugacity, vortex unbinding is accurately described by the nonperturbative functional renormalization group