536 research outputs found

    Histogram analysis as a method for determining the line tension by Monte-Carlo simulations

    Full text link
    A method is proposed for determining the line tension, which is the main physical characteristic of a three-phase contact region, by Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations. The key idea of the proposed method is that if a three-phase equilibrium involves a three-phase contact region, the probability distribution of states of a system as a function of two order parameters depends not only on the surface tension, but also on the line tension. This probability distribution can be obtained as a normalized histogram by appropriate MC simulations, so one can use the combination of histogram analysis and finite-size scaling to study the properties of a three phase contact region. Every histogram and results extracted therefrom will depend on the size of the simulated system. Carrying out MC simulations for a series of system sizes and extrapolating the results, obtained from the corresponding series of histograms, to infinite size, one can determine the line tension of the three phase contact region and the interfacial tensions of all three interfaces (and hence the contact angles) in an infinite system. To illustrate the proposed method, it is applied to the three-dimensional ternary fluid mixture, in which molecular pairs of like species do not interact whereas those of unlike species interact as hard spheres. The simulated results are in agreement with expectations

    Enhanced electrocaloric efficiency via energy recovery.

    Get PDF
    Materials that show large and reversible electrically driven thermal changes near phase transitions have been proposed for cooling applications, but energy efficiency has barely been explored. Here we reveal that most of the work done to drive representative electrocaloric cycles does not pump heat and may therefore be recovered. Initially, we recover 75-80% of the work done each time BaTiO3-based multilayer capacitors drive electrocaloric effects in each other via an inductor (diodes prevent electrical resonance while heat flows after each charge transfer). For a prototype refrigerator with 24 such capacitors, recovering 65% of the work done to drive electrocaloric effects increases the coefficient of performance by a factor of 2.9. The coefficient of performance is subsequently increased by reducing the pumped heat and recovering more work. Our strategy mitigates the advantage held by magnetocaloric prototypes that exploit automatic energy recovery, and should be mandatory in future electrocaloric cooling devices

    Dark-Photon Search using Data from CRESST-II Phase 2

    Full text link
    Identifying the nature and origin of dark matter is one of the major challenges for modern astro and particle physics. Direct dark-matter searches aim at an observation of dark-matter particles interacting within detectors. The focus of several such searches is on interactions with nuclei as provided e.g. by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. However, there is a variety of dark-matter candidates favoring interactions with electrons rather than with nuclei. One example are dark photons, i.e., long-lived vector particles with a kinetic mixing to standard-model photons. In this work we present constraints on this kinetic mixing based on data from CRESST-II Phase 2 corresponding to an exposure before cuts of 52\,kg-days. These constraints improve the existing ones for dark-photon masses between 0.3 and 0.7\,keV/c2^2.Comment: submitted EPJ

    Equilibrium configurations of fluids and their stability in higher dimensions

    Get PDF
    We study equilibrium shapes, stability and possible bifurcation diagrams of fluids in higher dimensions, held together by either surface tension or self-gravity. We consider the equilibrium shape and stability problem of self-gravitating spheroids, establishing the formalism to generalize the MacLaurin sequence to higher dimensions. We show that such simple models, of interest on their own, also provide accurate descriptions of their general relativistic relatives with event horizons. The examples worked out here hint at some model-independent dynamics, and thus at some universality: smooth objects seem always to be well described by both ``replicas'' (either self-gravity or surface tension). As an example, we exhibit an instability afflicting self-gravitating (Newtonian) fluid cylinders. This instability is the exact analogue, within Newtonian gravity, of the Gregory-Laflamme instability in general relativity. Another example considered is a self-gravitating Newtonian torus made of a homogeneous incompressible fluid. We recover the features of the black ring in general relativity.Comment: 42 pages, 11 Figures, RevTeX4. Accepted for publication in Classical and Quantum Gravity. v2: Minor corrections and references adde

    Results on MeV-scale dark matter from a gram-scale cryogenic calorimeter operated above ground

    Full text link
    Models for light dark matter particles with masses below 1 GeV/c2^2 are a natural and well-motivated alternative to so-far unobserved weakly interacting massive particles. Gram-scale cryogenic calorimeters provide the required detector performance to detect these particles and extend the direct dark matter search program of CRESST. A prototype 0.5 g sapphire detector developed for the ν\nu-cleus experiment has achieved an energy threshold of Eth=(19.7±0.9)E_{th}=(19.7\pm 0.9) eV, which is one order of magnitude lower than previous results and independent of the type of particle interaction. The result presented here is obtained in a setup above ground without significant shielding against ambient and cosmogenic radiation. Although operated in a high-background environment, the detector probes a new range of light-mass dark matter particles previously not accessible by direct searches. We report the first limit on the spin-independent dark matter particle-nucleon cross section for masses between 140 MeV/c2^2 and 500 MeV/c2^2.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figures, v3: ancillary files added, v4: high energy spectrum (0.6-12keV) added to ancillary file

    Limits on Dark Matter Effective Field Theory Parameters with CRESST-II

    Full text link
    CRESST is a direct dark matter search experiment, aiming for an observation of nuclear recoils induced by the interaction of dark matter particles with cryogenic scintillating calcium tungstate crystals. Instead of confining ourselves to standard spin-independent and spin-dependent searches, we re-analyze data from CRESST-II using a more general effective field theory (EFT) framework. On many of the EFT coupling constants, improved exclusion limits in the low-mass region (< 3-4 GeV) are presented.Comment: 7 pages, 9 figure

    Results on light dark matter particles with a low-threshold CRESST-II detector

    Get PDF
    The CRESST-II experiment uses cryogenic detectors to search for nuclear recoil events induced by the elastic scattering of dark matter particles in CaWO4_4 crystals. Given the low energy threshold of our detectors in combination with light target nuclei, low mass dark matter particles can be probed with high sensitivity. In this letter we present the results from data of a single detector module corresponding to 52 kg live days. A blind analysis is carried out. With an energy threshold for nuclear recoils of 307 eV we substantially enhance the sensitivity for light dark matter. Thereby, we extend the reach of direct dark matter experiments to the sub-region and demonstrate that the energy threshold is the key parameter in the search for low mass dark matter particles.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figure
    • …