34 research outputs found

    Optimal Allocation of Reservior Water: a Case Study of Lake Tenkiller

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    The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal allocation of reservoir water among consumptive (urban and rural water supply) and non-consumptive (hydroelectric power generation and lake recreation) uses. An optimization model using non-linear programming is developed to optimally allocate reservoir water among competing uses. It is not unusual to determine recreation values along with flood control, hydropower generation and urban and rural water uses with recreation uses being treated as residual at best determined by maintaining reservoir level within specified range. In this study recreational benefits depend explicitly on the summer lake levels, while the flood control capacity of the reservoir is maintained through upper bounds on the lake level. A mass balance equation is used to determine the level and volume of water in the lake for each month over a twelve month period. General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) with the MINOS is used to solve this model. Results show that the total benefits arising from the use of reservoir water is increased under the optimization model compare to the benefits obtained under historical releases. We found that for Lake Tenkiller it is beneficial to consider the recreational values within the optimization model that would increase the overall benefits and the lake level should be maintained around the normal lake level of 632 feet during summer when the number of visitors is peak. An optimal allocation of water between competing uses requires that the marginal price of water at the lake in each month must be same for the last unit of water used for hydropower, recreation or urban and rural water uses.Department of Agricultural Economic

    A biofuels outlook for the U.S. and Brazil and what it might mean for sustainable development goal 7

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    Sustainable Development goals set out at the United Nations with broad support include targets relating to food security, energy access, and the environment. Some national policies have turned to renewable fuels to achieve energy and environmental goals, with biofuel use mandates applied in countries that account for significant market shares. However, the context in which the development goals were set and these biofuel policies put in place might differ from current and future conditions. The scope for biofuel expansion might be restrained by technical limits on blending rates, slower future growth in transportation energy demand after the pandemic, and the interactions with feedstock and other agricultural commodity markets, which could take different forms given larger biofuel volumes and other changes. Considering the expected policies and broader context, this study provides a 10-year outlook for biofuel use, production, feedstock demands, and other related variables with a primary focus on the United States and Brazil. We find scope for increasing biofuel use in both countries, particularly for biomass-based diesel, in the projection period and growing displacement of petroleum product-related greenhouse gas emissions, which is consistent with sustainable development goal seven

    Three essays: Reservoir management; switchgrass land leasing; and its environmental impact

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    First essay determines the optimal lake levels for Lake Tenkiller that maximizes the total net economic benefits derived from both marketed and non-marketed uses under stochastic inflows. It was found that for Lake Tenkiller when recreational benefits are included, it is beneficial to maintain the lake level at around 634 feet above mean sea level until mid-August, and then start drawing down for hydropower generation.Second essay assists the proposed biorefinery by determining if it can reduce the overall year-to-year variability in switchgrass biomass production by strategically selecting a portfolio of land to be leased to meet the required feedstock demand of the biorefinery. It was found that strategically selecting land to lease would reduce both the expected costs of switchgrass feedstock and the number of forced shutdown days.Third essay estimates the farm-gate breakeven price of switchgrass relative to wheat production, which is the dominant crop in Oklahoma. The breakeven price of switchgrass is determined with (social) and without (private) considering selected external environmental consequences. Results suggest that the farm-gate breakeven price of switchgrass from the private landowners' perspective is higher than from the social planners' perspective when environmental consequences are considered

    Optimal Allocation of Reservoir Water

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    The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal allocation of reservoir water among consumptive and non-consumptive uses. A non-linear mathematical programming model is developed to optimally allocate Lake Tenkiller water among competing uses that maximize the net social benefit. A mass balance is used to determine the level and volume of water in the lake. This paper examines the effect of water management on lake resources when recreational values are and are not included as control variables in the optimization process. Results show that maintaining the lake level to the ‘normal lake level’ of 632 feet during the summer months generates more recreational benefit rather than reducing the lake level by releasing water for hydro power generation.consumptive and non-consumptive use, mass balance equation, non-linear mathematical programming, optimization, recreational uses, water allocation, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Integrated Reservoir Management under Stochastic Conditions

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    Economic optimization, Lake levels, Marketed and non-marketed water uses, Non-linear programming, Recreational benefits, Reservoir management, Stochastic inflows, Value of a visitor day, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Public Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty,

    The economic and environmental costs and benefits of the renewable fuel standard

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    Mandates, like the renewable fuel standard (RFS), for biofuels from corn and cellulosic feedstocks, impact the environment in multiple ways by affecting land use, nitrogen (N)-leakage, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We analyze the differing trade-offs these different types of biofuels offer among these multi-dimensional environmental effects and convert them to a monetized value of environmental damages (or benefits) that can be compared with the economic costs of extending these mandates over the 2016–2030 period. The discounted values of cumulative net benefits (or costs) are then compared to those with a counterfactual level of biofuels that would have been produced in the absence of the RFS over this period. We find that maintaining the corn ethanol mandate at 56 billion l till 2030 will lead to a discounted cumulative value of an economic cost of 199billionoverthe20162030periodcomparedtothecounterfactualscenario;thisincludes199 billion over the 2016–2030 period compared to the counterfactual scenario; this includes 109 billion of economic costs and 85billionofnetmonetizedenvironmentaldamages.Theadditionalimplementationofacellulosicbiofuelmandatefor60billionlby2030willincreasethiseconomiccostby85 billion of net monetized environmental damages. The additional implementation of a cellulosic biofuel mandate for 60 billion l by 2030 will increase this economic cost by 69 billion which will be partly offset by the net discounted monetized value of environmental benefits of 20billion,resultinginanetcostof20 billion, resulting in a net cost of 49 billion over the 2016–2030 period. We explore the sensitivity of these net (economic and environmental) costs to alternative values of the social costs of carbon and nitrogen and other technological and market parameters. We find that, unlike corn ethanol, cellulosic biofuels can result in positive net benefits if the monetary benefits of GHG mitigation are valued high and those of N-damages are not very high

    Can Carbon Credit Reduce Switchgrass Breakeven Price?

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    Abstract This paper estimates the farmgate and delivered price of the bioenergy crop switchgrass with and without the presence of carbon credit. A biophysical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) is used to simulate the feedstock yields and the amount of carbon sequestration for land capability class I, II, and III in several counties of Oklahoma, U.S.A. The centroid of land capability class in each county within the surrounding of the potential hypothetical biorefinery is estimated and used to determine the delivered switchgrass price. Three hypothetical carbon credit rates: 20Mg1,20 Mg -1 , 30 Mg -1 , and $40 Mg -1 are used to estimate the breakeven price of switchgrass. Results suggest that valuing the carbon sequestration in the soil derived from the switchgrass production reduce both the farmgate and delivered costs of switchgrass under all scenarios and the difference between the switchgrass price with and without considering the carbon credits is the highest for the land capability class III