7 research outputs found

    Associations between Facial Emotion Recognition and Mental Health in Early Adolescence

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    Research shows that adolescents with mental illnesses have a bias for processing negative facial emotions, and this may play a role in impaired social functioning that often co-exists with a mental health diagnosis. This study examined associations between psychological and somatic problems and facial emotion recognition in early adolescence; as any processing biases in this age-group may be an early indicator of later mental illnesses. A community sample of 40 12-year-olds self-rated their symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization via two mental health screeners. They also completed a computerized emotion recognition task in which they identified photographs of 40 faces showing expressions of anger, fear, sadness, happiness, or neutral expression. Results showed that increased symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization were significantly associated with fewer correct responses to angry expressions. These symptoms were also associated with faster and more accurate recognition of fearful expressions. However, there was no association between mental health and recognition of sad affect. Finally, increased psychological and/or somatic symptomology was also associated with better identification of neutral expressions. In conclusion, youth with increased psychological and/or somatic problems exhibited a processing bias for negative anger and fear expressions, but not sadness. They showed better processing of neutral faces than youth with fewer psychological and/or somatic problems. Findings are discussed in relation to indicators of mental illnesses in early adolescence and the potential underpinning neural mechanisms associated with mental health and emotional facial recognition

    Massively Multiplayer Online Games and Well-Being: A Systematic Literature Review

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    Background: Massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) evolve online, whilst engaging large numbers of participants who play concurrently. Their online socialization component is a primary reason for their high popularity. Interestingly, the adverse effects of MMOs have attracted significant attention compared to their potential benefits.Methods: To address this deficit, employing PRISMA guidelines, this systematic review aimed to summarize empirical evidence regarding a range of interpersonal and intrapersonal MMO well-being outcomes for those older than 13.Results: Three databases identified 18 relevant English language studies, 13 quantitative, 4 qualitative and 1 mixed method published between January 2012 and August 2020. A narrative synthesis methodology was employed, whilst validated tools appraised risk of bias and study quality.Conclusions: A significant positive relationship between playing MMOs and social well-being was concluded, irrespective of one's age and/or their casual or immersed gaming patterns. This finding should be considered in the light of the limited: (a) game platforms investigated; (b) well-being constructs identified; and (c) research quality (i.e., modest). Nonetheless, conclusions are of relevance for game developers and health professionals, who should be cognizant of the significant MMOs-well-being association(s). Future research should focus on broadening the well-being constructs investigated, whilst enhancing the applied methodologies

    Continuous multisite accelerometry system allows the identification and differentiation of movements which are not apparent using conventional actigraphy

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    Introduction: Impairments in cognition are frequently observed in untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), including defi -cits in memory, executive functioning, attention, and processing speed. The precise nature and causes of these defi cits remains controversial. The present study aimed to characterise the magnitude of cognitive defi cits in a sleep clinic sample of OSA patients. Specifi cally, we sought to defi ne the dose response relationship between cognition and disease severity. Methods: Ninety patients with moderate to severe OSA were recruited for cognitive testing following their diagnostic overnight sleep study and prior to starting any treatment. Cognitive testing included comput-erised and pencil & paper tasks assessing short and long term verbal and visual memory, visuoconstructional ability, verbal fl uency, cogni-tive set shifting, verbal and visuospatial working memory, reaction time, vigilance, and nonverbal reasoning.Results: Participants were aged 32–77 years (M 53.8 ± 11.3), 50% male with mean AHI 44.6 ± 23.7, range 15.5–108.7. After controlling for the effect of age, the severity of OSA (using AHI) was signifi cantly related to the quality of working memory (r = −.35) and the accuracy of attention (r = −.54), but not to an individual’s ability to learn new information (quality of secondary memory) or to executive function (planning and visuoconstructional problem solving).Discussion: The more severe an individual’s OSA, the worse their ability to hold information in short term memory whilst working with it (both visuospatial and verbal), and the more errors they make on attentional tasks. Working memory and attention abilities are likely to impact on the capacity of patients with OSA to work efficiently and safely

    Predicting uptake of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA): A belief-based theoretical approach

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    Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a standard treatment. Despite its well-established efficacy, many patients choose not to initiate CPAP treatment. The present study investigated the degree to which biological measures (e.g. Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index [AHI]), symptom experiences (e.g. fatigue) and illness representations (e.g. perceived consequences) predict the decision of individuals newly diagnosed with OSA to undergo a trial of CPAP therapy. Methods: Four hundred forty-nine individuals (316 males) newly diagnosed with OSA. Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) were administered at time of sleep study. These, patient demographics and sleep study variables were used to determine factors predicting patient decision to proceed with a trial of CPAP. Results: The participants were most likely to attribute their OSA to unchangeable and psychological factors. For those with moderate OSA (AHI, 15 to 30) IPQ-R illness consequence was predictive of decision to initiate CPAP (p = 0.002). For severe OSA (AHI > 30) age, ESS and IPQ illness causal beliefs were predictive of decision to initiate CPAP (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Illness beliefs are important determinants of the choice of recently diagnosed OSA patients whether or not to undertake a trial of CPAP therapy. Concerns about illness consequences were important in those with moderate OSA. In severe OSA, sleepiness symptoms are more prominent and a more significant determinant of CPAP uptake along with age and causal beliefs. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg