65 research outputs found

    Meilleures techniques disponibles de lavage de sols contaminés par les HAP : Etude d'un procédé basé sur les cyclodextrines

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    http://www.ait.org.tn/gdsdd/International audienceLa pollution des sols par les Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques (HAP) a été reconnue comme un problème majeur depuis de nombreuses années. L'impact environnemental de ces molécules hydrophobes, persistantes, aux effets toxiques (mutagènes et cancérigènes) rend nécessaire la décontamination des sites concernés. L'efficacité des techniques de bioremédiation ou d'extraction à l'eau pure est limitée par la faible solubilité aqueuse et donc la faible biodisponibilité des HAP. Les méthodes actuelles de lavage de sols augmentent cette solubilité par l'emploi de surfactants ou de solvants organiques, mais ont pour la plupart un impact écologique et/ou humain non négligeable

    Caract√©risation physico-chimique d'un s√©diment marin trait√© aux liants hydrauliques (√Čvaluation de la mobilit√© potentielle des polluants inorganiques)

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    Le dragage des ports français génère chaque année entre 25 et 40 millions de tonnes de matériaux non contaminés qui sont clapés en mer. Il existe, de plus, un stock important de sédiments contaminés (10 millions de tonnes environ) qui n ont pas été dragués, du fait de la réglementation interdisant un rejet en mer lorsque les niveaux de contamination dépassent les seuils définis par l arrêté du 14 juin 2000. En outre, ce stock de sédiment, qui devra impérativement être dragué dans les dix ans à venir, est quasiment orphelin de filières de traitement et de valorisation adaptées. L urgence de mettre en place des solutions (filières), respectueuses des fondements du développement durable, a engendré de nombreux programmes de recherche. Le programme SEDiGEST (Gestion des Sédiments de dragages des ports) envisage notamment un scénario de remblaiement des cavités terrestres par des sédiments traités. Cette Thèse de Doctorat, menée dans le cadre de ce programme, contribue à l amélioration de la compréhension du comportement géo-physico-chimique d un sédiment marin stabilisé aux liants hydrauliques (chaux + ciment). Pour répondre à cet objectif la démarche expérimentale a été conduite en trois étapes : tout d abord la caractérisation du solide, puis l évaluation de la mobilité potentielle des polluants inorganiques et enfin, la modélisation du comportement à la lixiviation. La synthèse des résultats a montré que les polluants inorganiques cibles de la matrice d étude (cuivre, plomb et zinc) étaient majoritairement associés aux carbonates, aux sulfures/sulfates, aux (oxy)hydroxydes, et/ou à la matière organique. L étude comparative de la matrice étudiée à trois stades d évolution (avant et après traitement et vieilli artificiellement) a permis de mettre en évidence que le procédé de stabilisation aux liants hydrauliques n était pas une solution pérenne. En effet, le sédiment traité présente un risque de pollution à plus ou moins long terme, notamment par relargage de plomb et de cuivre, en cas de carbonatation de la matrice sédimentaire. En particulier, la réversibilité du procédé de stabilisation/solidification induit par la réactivité des phases cimentaires avec le CO2 atmosphérique, peut également conduire à une mobilisation des polluants à long terme.The dredging of French ports generates each year between 25 to 40 million tons of uncontaminated materials which are piled onto sea. Moreover, an important stock of contaminated sediments (about 10 million tons), which has to been dredged, exists. Indeed, the decree of June 14th, 2000 prohibits disposal to sea when levels of contamination exceed regulations. This important stock of sediment, which must be imperatively dredged within 10 years, is almost orphan of adapted treatment and valorization. In this context many research program appear to propose and to develop solutions. The SEDiGEST program (Management of the dredging sediments of ports) intends a scenario of filling terrestrial cavities with treated sediments. This Ph.D. thesis, carried out within the framework of this program, contributes to the improvement in understanding the geo-physico-chemical behavior of marine sediment stabilized with hydraulic binders (cement + lime). In this objective, the experimental approach was conducted in three steps. Firstly, a characterization of the solid was realized. An evaluation of the potential mobility of inorganic pollutants have was then determined. Finally, a modeling of the behavior towards leaching was operated. Data shown that target's inorganic pollutants of the matrix of study (copper, lead and zinc) were mainly associated with carbonates, sulfides/sulfates, (oxy)hydroxides, and/or with organic matter. Comparative study of the matrix at three levels of evolution (before and after treatment and artificially aged) highlights the reversibility of the stabilization by hydraulic binders. Indeed, treated sediment presents a pollution risk to less or more long term, leaching of copper and lead, during carbonation.VILLEURBANNE-DOC'INSA LYON (692662301) / SudocVILLEURBANNE-DOC'INSA-Bib. elec. (692669901) / SudocSudocFranceF

    The RESET project: constructing a European tephra lattice for refined synchronisation of environmental and archaeological events during the last c. 100 ka

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    This paper introduces the aims and scope of the RESET project (. RESponse of humans to abrupt Environmental Transitions), a programme of research funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK) between 2008 and 2013; it also provides the context and rationale for papers included in a special volume of Quaternary Science Reviews that report some of the project's findings. RESET examined the chronological and correlation methods employed to establish causal links between the timing of abrupt environmental transitions (AETs) on the one hand, and of human dispersal and development on the other, with a focus on the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic periods. The period of interest is the Last Glacial cycle and the early Holocene (c. 100-8 ka), during which time a number of pronounced AETs occurred. A long-running topic of debate is the degree to which human history in Europe and the Mediterranean region during the Palaeolithic was shaped by these AETs, but this has proved difficult to assess because of poor dating control. In an attempt to move the science forward, RESET examined the potential that tephra isochrons, and in particular non-visible ash layers (cryptotephras), might offer for synchronising palaeo-records with a greater degree of finesse. New tephrostratigraphical data generated by the project augment previously-established tephra frameworks for the region, and underpin a more evolved tephra 'lattice' that links palaeo-records between Greenland, the European mainland, sub-marine sequences in the Mediterranean and North Africa. The paper also outlines the significance of other contributions to this special volume: collectively, these illustrate how the lattice was constructed, how it links with cognate tephra research in Europe and elsewhere, and how the evidence of tephra isochrons is beginning to challenge long-held views about the impacts of environmental change on humans during the Palaeolithic. ¬© 2015 Elsevier Ltd.RESET was funded through Consortium Grants awarded by the Natural Environment Research Council, UK, to a collaborating team drawn from four institutions: Royal Holloway University of London (grant reference NE/E015905/1), the Natural History Museum, London (NE/E015913/1), Oxford University (NE/E015670/1) and the University of Southampton, including the National Oceanography Centre (NE/01531X/1). The authors also wish to record their deep gratitude to four members of the scientific community who formed a consultative advisory panel during the lifetime of the RESET project: Professor Barbara Wohlfarth (Stockholm University), Professor J√łrgen Peder Steffensen (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen), Dr. Martin Street (Romisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Neuwied) and Professor Clive Oppenheimer (Cambridge University). They provided excellent advice at key stages of the work, which we greatly valued. We also thank Jenny Kynaston (Geography Department, Royal Holloway) for construction of several of the figures in this paper, and Debbie Barrett (Elsevier) and Colin Murray Wallace (Editor-in-Chief, QSR) for their considerable assistance in the production of this special volume.Peer Reviewe

    Global burden of chronic respiratory diseases and risk factors, 1990‚Äď2019: an update from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

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    Background: Updated data on chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are vital in their prevention, control, and treatment in the path to achieving the third UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a one-third reduction in premature mortality from non-communicable diseases by 2030. We provided global, regional, and national estimates of the burden of CRDs and their attributable risks from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we estimated mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), prevalence, and incidence of CRDs, i.e. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pneumoconiosis, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis, and other CRDs, from 1990 to 2019 by sex, age, region, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) in 204 countries and territories. Deaths and DALYs from CRDs attributable to each risk factor were estimated according to relative risks, risk exposure, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level input. Findings: In 2019, CRDs were the third leading cause of death responsible for 4.0 million deaths (95% uncertainty interval 3.6‚Äď4.3) with a prevalence of 454.6 million cases (417.4‚Äď499.1) globally. While the total deaths and prevalence of CRDs have increased by 28.5% and 39.8%, the age-standardised rates have dropped by 41.7% and 16.9% from 1990 to 2019, respectively. COPD, with 212.3 million (200.4‚Äď225.1) prevalent cases, was the primary cause of deaths from CRDs, accounting for 3.3 million (2.9‚Äď3.6) deaths. With 262.4 million (224.1‚Äď309.5) prevalent cases, asthma had the highest prevalence among CRDs. The age-standardised rates of all burden measures of COPD, asthma, and pneumoconiosis have reduced globally from 1990 to 2019. Nevertheless, the age-standardised rates of incidence and prevalence of interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis have increased throughout this period. Low- and low-middle SDI countries had the highest age-standardised death and DALYs rates while the high SDI quintile had the highest prevalence rate of CRDs. The highest deaths and DALYs from CRDs were attributed to smoking globally, followed by air pollution and occupational risks. Non-optimal temperature and high body-mass index were additional risk factors for COPD and asthma, respectively. Interpretation: Albeit the age-standardised prevalence, death, and DALYs rates of CRDs have decreased, they still cause a substantial burden and deaths worldwide. The high death and DALYs rates in low and low-middle SDI countries highlights the urgent need for improved preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic measures. Global strategies for tobacco control, enhancing air quality, reducing occupational hazards, and fostering clean cooking fuels are crucial steps in reducing the burden of CRDs, especially in low- and lower-middle income countries

    Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

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    The UN‚Äôs Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of ‚Äúleaving no one behind‚ÄĚ. Understanding today‚Äôs gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016), we measured 37 of the 50 health-related SDG indicators over the period 1990‚Äď2016 for 188 countries, and then on the basis of these past trends, we projected indicators to 2030

    Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

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    Background Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017. Methods The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODErn), to generate cause fractions and cause specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised. Findings At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NC Ds) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73.4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72.5-74.1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 186% (17.9-19.6), and injuries 8.0% (7.7-8.2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22.7% (21.5-23.9), representing an additional 7.61 million (7. 20-8.01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7.9% (7.08.8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 222% (20.0-24.0) and the death rate by 31.8% (30.1-33.3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2.3% (0-5-4-0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13.7% (12.2-15.1) to 57.9 deaths (55.9-59.2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000-289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000-363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118.0% (88.8-148.6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36.4% (32.2-40.6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33.6% (31.2-36.1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respirator}, infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990 neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases. Interpretation Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade. Copyright (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.Peer reviewe

    Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990‚Äď2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019