26,569 research outputs found

    Wave Function of a Brane-like Universe

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    Within the mini-superspace model, brane-like cosmology means performing the variation with respect to the embedding (Minkowski) time τ\tau before fixing the cosmic (Einstein) time tt. The departure from Einstein limit is parameterized by the 'energy' conjugate to τ\tau, and characterized by a classically disconnected Embryonic epoch. In contrast with canonical quantum gravity, the wave-function of the brane-like Universe is (i) τ\tau-dependent, and (ii) vanishes at the Big Bang. Hartle-Hawking and Linde proposals dictate discrete 'energy' levels, whereas Vilenkin proposal resembles α\alpha-particle disintegration.Comment: Revtex, 4 twocolumn pages, 3 eps figures (accepted for publication in Class. Quan. Grav.

    Nonlinear Electron Oscillations in a Viscous and Resistive Plasma

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    New non-linear, spatially periodic, long wavelength electrostatic modes of an electron fluid oscillating against a motionless ion fluid (Langmuir waves) are given, with viscous and resistive effects included. The cold plasma approximation is adopted, which requires the wavelength to be sufficiently large. The pertinent requirement valid for large amplitude waves is determined. The general non-linear solution of the continuity and momentum transfer equations for the electron fluid along with Poisson's equation is obtained in simple parametric form. It is shown that in all typical hydrogen plasmas, the influence of plasma resistivity on the modes in question is negligible. Within the limitations of the solution found, the non-linear time evolution of any (periodic) initial electron number density profile n_e(x, t=0) can be determined (examples). For the modes in question, an idealized model of a strictly cold and collisionless plasma is shown to be applicable to any real plasma, provided that the wavelength lambda >> lambda_{min}(n_0,T_e), where n_0 = const and T_e are the equilibrium values of the electron number density and electron temperature. Within this idealized model, the minimum of the initial electron density n_e(x_{min}, t=0) must be larger than half its equilibrium value, n_0/2. Otherwise, the corresponding maximum n_e(x_{max},t=tau_p/2), obtained after half a period of the plasma oscillation blows up. Relaxation of this restriction on n_e(x, t=0) as one decreases lambda, due to the increase of the electron viscosity effects, is examined in detail. Strong plasma viscosity is shown to change considerably the density profile during the time evolution, e.g., by splitting the largest maximum in two.Comment: 16 one column pages, 11 figures, Abstract and Sec. I, extended, Sec. VIII modified, Phys. Rev. E in pres

    Prevention of osteoporotic refractures in regional Australia

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    Objective: Clinical guidelines recommend that patients who sustain a minimal trauma fracture (MTF) should receive a bone mineral density (BMD) scan and bisphosphonate (or equivalent) therapy if diagnosed with osteoporosis. A pilot fracture liaison service (FLS) was implemented in regional NSW to improve adherence to the guidelines. Design: Prospective cohort study with an historical control. Setting: Primary care. Participants: Control (n = 47) and cohort (n = 93) groups comprised patients consenting to interview who presented with a MTF to the major referral hospital 4 months before and 12 months after FLS implementation respectively. Main outcome measures: Primary outcome measures were the rates of BMD scans and anti-osteoporotic medication initiation/review after MTF. Hospital admission data were also examined to determine death and refracture rates for all patients presenting during the study period with a primary diagnosis of MTF within 3 years of their initial fracture. Results: Although there was no improvement in BMD scanning rates, the reported rate of medication initiation/review after fracture was significantly higher (P \u3c 0.05) in the FLS cohort. However, once adjusted for age, this association was not significant (P = 0.086). There was a lower refracture rate during the cohort period (P = 0.013), however, there were significantly more deaths (P = 0.035) within 3 years of initial fracture. When deaths were taken into account via competing risk regression, patients in the cohort period were significantly less likely to refracture than those in the control period (Hazard ratio = 0.576, P = 0.032). Conclusions: A rurally based nurse-led FLS was associated with modest improvement after MTF. Consideration should be given to ways to strengthen the model of care to improve outcomes

    Kohn-Sham calculations combined with an average pair-density functional theory

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    A recently developed formalism in which Kohn-Sham calculations are combined with an ``average pair density functional theory'' is reviewed, and some new properties of the effective electron-electron interaction entering in this formalism are derived. A preliminary construction of a fully self-consitent scheme is also presented in this framework.Comment: submitted to Int. J. Mod. Phys. B (proceedings of the 30th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories

    Richness and Abundance of Carabidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera), in Northeastern Dairy Pastures Under Intensive Grazing

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    Dairy cattle has become popular to dairy farmers in the Northeast looking for management schemes to cut production costs. Carabidae (ground beetles) and Staphylinidae (rove beetles) are indicators of habitat disturbances, such as drainage of wetlands, or grassland for grazing animals, and their monitoring could provide one measure of ecosystem sustainability if intensive management systems expand or intensify in the future. Our objective was assess the abundance and species richness of these two beetle families under intensive grazing throughout Pennsylvania, southern New York and Vermont. We collected 4365 ground beetles (83 species) and 4,027 rove beetles (79 species) by pitfall traps in three years in Pennsylvania. Nine ground beetle species, Amara aenea, Poecilus chalcites, Pterostichus melanarius, Bembidion quadrimaculatum oppositum, Amara familiaris, Poecilus lucublandus, Agonum muelleri, Bembidion obtusum and Bembidion mimus represented 80% of the Carabidae collected. Five other species were new to Pennsylvania. Four rove beetle species, Philonthus cognatus, Meronera venustula, Amischa analis, and Philonthus various = (carbonarius), comprised 74% of the total Staphylinidae collected. Yearly distributions of the dominant species did not change significantly in the three years with A. aenea and P. cognatus being most abundant every year. A parasitic rove beetle, Aleochara tristis, was recovered for the first time in Pennsylvania and Vermont since its release in the 1960\u27s to control face fly, Musca autumnalis. Similar results were found in New York and Vermont. We collected 1,984 ground beetles (68 species). Pterostichus melanarius was most abundant. Pterostichus vernalis was detected for the first time in the United States (Vermont). It was previously reported from Montreal, Canada. We collected 843 rove beetles (45 species). Philonthus cognatus was the most abundant rove beetle. In addition, Tachinus corticinus, previously known only from Canada, was discovered for the first time in the United States in Vermont. Pastures in Pennsylvania were diverse, containing 14 species of forage plants and 17 weed species. Botanical composition was similar in New York and Vermont. Sixteen species of grasses and legumes made up 90% of the plant composition and 36 species of weeds made up the remainder. This di­verse plant ecosystem may explain the richness of ground and rove beetles in northeastern U.S. pastures because the heterogeneity in the plant population provided additional resources which can support a rich assemblage of beetles. Monitoring richness and abundance of Carabidae and Staphylinidae over three years in Pennsylvania suggests intensive grazing systems are eco­logically sustainable

    Low Molecular Weight mRNA Encodes a Protein That Controls Serotonin 5-HT_(1c) and Acetylcholine M_1 Receptor Sensitivity in Xenopus Oocytes

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    Serotonin 5-HT_(1c) and acetylcholine M_1 receptors activate phosphoinositidase, resulting in an increased formation of IP_3 and 1,2 diacylglycerol. In Xenopus oocytes injected with mRNA encoding either of these receptors, Ca^(2+) released from intracellular stores in response to IP3 then opens Ca^(2+)-gated Cl^-channels. In the present experiments, oocytes expressing a transcript from a cloned mouse serotonin 5-HT_(1c) receptor were exposed to identical 15-s pulses of agonist, administered 2 min apart; the second current response was two to three times that of the first. However, in those oocytes coinjected with the 5-HT_(1c) receptor transcript and a low molecular weight fraction (0.3-1.5 kb) of rat brain mRNA, the second current response was ~50% of the first. Thus, the low molecular weight RNA encodes a protein (or proteins) that causes desensitization. Experiments using fura-2 or a Ca^(2+)-free superfusate indicated that desensitization of the 5-HT_(1c) receptor response does not result from a sustained elevation of intracellular Ca^(2+) level or require the entry of extracellular Ca^(2+). Photolysis of caged IP_3 demonstrated that an increase in IP_3 and a subsequent rise in Ca^(2+) do not produce desensitization of either the IP_3 or 5-HT_(1c) peak current responses. Furthermore, in oocytes coinjected with the low molecular weight RNA and a transcript from the rat M_1 acetylcholine receptor, the M_1 current response was greatly attenuated. Our data suggest that the proteins involved in attenuation of the M_1 current response and desensitization of the 5-HT_(1c) current response may be the same

    Echo spectroscopy of bulk Bogoliubov excitations in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

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    We propose and demonstrate an echo method to reduce the inhomogeneous linewidth of Bogoliubov excitations, in a harmonically-trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Our proposal includes the transfer of excitations with momentum +q to -q using a double two photon Bragg process, in which a substantial reduction of the inhomogeneous broadening is calculated. Furthermore, we predict an enhancement in the method's efficiency for low momentum due to many-body effects. The echo can also be implemented by using a four photon process, as is demonstrated experimentally.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    SOFIA: A Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

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    SOFIA is described as it was originally (May 1988) for the Space and Earth Sciences Advisory Committee (SESAC). The format and questions were provided by SESAC as a standard for judging the merit of potential U.S. space science projects. This version deletes Section IIF, which addressed development costs of the SOFIA facility. SOFIA's unique astronomical potential is described and it is shown how it complements and supports existing and planned facilities

    System-adapted correlation energy density functionals from effective pair interactions

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    We present and discuss some ideas concerning an ``average-pair-density functional theory'', in which the ground-state energy of a many-electron system is rewritten as a functional of the spherically and system-averaged pair density. These ideas are further clarified with simple physical examples. We then show that the proposed formalism can be combined with density functional theory to build system-adapted correlation energy functionals. A simple approximation for the unknown effective electron-electron interaction that enters in this combined approach is described, and results for the He series and for the uniform electron gas are briefly reviewed.Comment: to appear in Phil. Mag. as part of Conference proceedings for the "Electron Correlations and Materials Properties", Kos Greece, July 5-9, 200
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