2,993 research outputs found

    Hermite regression analysis of multi-modal count data

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    We discuss the modeling of count data whose empirical distribution is both multi-modal and over-dispersed, and propose the Hermite distribution with covariates introduced through the conditional mean. The model is readily estimated by maximum likelihood, and nests the Poisson model as a special case. The Hermite regression model is applied to data for the number of banking and currency crises in IMF-member countries, and is found to out-perform the Poisson and negative binomial models.Count data, multi-modal data, over-dispersion, financial crises

    Reducing the bias of the maximum likelihood estimator for the Poisson regression model

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    We derive expressions for the first-order bias of the MLE for a Poisson regression model and show how these can be used to adjust the estimator and reduce bias without increasing MSE. The analytic results are supported by Monte Carlo simulations and three illustrative empirical applications.Poisson regression, maximum likelihood estimation, bias reduction

    The Submillimeter Polarization Spectrum of M17

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    We present 450 {\mu}m polarimetric observations of the M17 molecular cloud obtained with the SHARP polarimeter at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Across the observed region, the magnetic field orientation is consistent with previous submillimeter and far-infrared polarization measurements. Our observations are centered on a region of the molecular cloud that has been compressed by stellar winds from a cluster of OB stars. We have compared these new data with previous 350 {\mu}m polarimetry and find an anti-correlation between the 450 to 350 {\mu}m polarization magnitude ratio and the ratio of 21 cm to 450 {\mu}m intensity. The polarization ratio is lower near the east end of the studied region where the cloud is exposed to stellar winds and radiation. At the west end of the region, the polarization ratio is higher. We interpret the varying polarization spectrum as evidence supporting the radiative alignment torque (RAT) model for grain alignment, implying higher alignment efficiency in the region that is exposed to a higher anisotropic radiation field.Comment: 24 pages, 10 figure

    Novel pyrrolobenzodiazepine benzofused hybrid molecules inhibit NF-ÎșB activity and synergise with bortezomib and ibrutinib in hematological cancers

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    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are incurable hematological malignancies that are pathologically linked with aberrant NF-ÎșB activation. In this study, we identified a group of novel C8-linked benzofused Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines (PBD) monomeric hybrids capable of sequence-selective inhibition of NF-ÎșB with low nanomolar LD50 values in CLL (n=46) and MM cell lines (n=5). The lead compound, DC-1-192, significantly inhibited NF-ÎșB DNA binding after just 4h exposure and demonstrating inhibitory effects on both canonical and non-canonical NF-ÎșB subunits. In primary CLL cells, sensitivity to DC-1-192 was inversely correlated with RelA subunit expression (r2=0.2) and samples with BIRC3 or NOTCH1 mutations showed increased sensitivity (P=0.001). RNA-sequencing and gene set enrichment analysis confirmed the over-representation of NF-ÎșB regulated genes in the down-regulated gene list. Furthermore, In vivo efficacy studies in NOD/SCID mice, using a systemic RPMI 8226 human multiple myeloma xenograft model, showed that DC-1-192 significantly prolonged survival (P=0.017). In addition, DC1-192 showed synergy with bortezomib and ibrutinib; synergy with ibrutinib was enhanced when CLL cells were co-cultured on CD40L-expressing fibroblasts in order to mimic the cytoprotective lymph node microenvironment (P = 0.01). Given that NF-ÎșB plays a role in both bortezomib and ibrutinib resistance mechanisms, these data provide a strong rationale for the use of DC-1-192 in the treatment of NF-ÎșB-driven cancers, particularly in the context of relapsed/refractory disease

    Expression of c-myc is not critical for cell proliferation in established human leukemia lines

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    BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to resolve preliminary conflicting results on the proliferation of leukemia cells observed with different c-myc antisense oligonucleotides. RESULTS: RNase H-active, chimeric methylphosphonodiester / phosphodiester antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting bases 1147–1166 of c-myc mRNA downregulated c-Myc protein and induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest respectively in cultures of MOLT-4 and KYO1 human leukemia cells. In contrast, an RNase H-inactive, morpholino antisense oligonucleotide analogue 28-mer, simultaneously targeting the exon 2 splice acceptor site and initiation codon, reduced c-Myc protein to barely detectable levels but did not affect cell proliferation in these or other leukemia lines. The RNase H-active oligodeoxynucleotide 20-mers contained the phosphodiester linked motif CGTTG, which as an apoptosis inducing CpG oligodeoxynucleotide 5-mer of sequence type CGNNN (N = A, G, C, or T) had potent activity against MOLT-4 cells. The 5-mer mimicked the antiproliferative effects of the 20-mer in the absence of any antisense activity against c-myc mRNA, while the latter still reduced expression of c-myc in a subline of MOLT-4 cells that had been selected for resistance to CGTTA, but in this case the oligodeoxynucleotide failed to induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the biological activity of the chimeric c-myc antisense 20-mers resulted from a non-antisense mechanism related to the CGTTG motif contained within the sequence, and not through downregulation of c-myc. Although the oncogene may have been implicated in the etiology of the original leukemias, expression of c-myc is apparently no longer required to sustain continuous cell proliferation in these culture lines

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Longitudinal hyperpolarized (3)He MR imaging

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    PURPOSE: To quantitatively evaluate a small pilot group of ex-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy volunteers during approximately 2 years by using hyperpolarized helium 3 ((3)He) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All subjects provided written informed consent to the study protocol, which was approved by the local research ethics board and Health Canada and was compliant with the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and HIPAA. Hyperpolarized (3)He MR imaging, hydrogen 1 MR imaging, spirometry, and plethysmography were performed in 15 ex-smokers with COPD and five healthy volunteers (with the same mean age and age range) at baseline and 26 months +/- 2 (standard deviation) later. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) derived from (3)He MR imaging were calculated from diffusion-weighted (3)He MR images, and (3)He ventilation defect volume (VDV) and ventilation defect percentage (VDP) were generated after manual segmentation of (3)He MR spin-density images. RESULTS: For subjects with COPD, significant increases in (3)He MR imaging-derived VDV (P = .03), VDP (P = .006), and ADC (P = .02) were detected, whereas there was no significant change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) (P = .97). For healthy never-smokers, there was no significant change in imaging or pulmonary function measurements at follow-up. There was a significant correlation between changes in FEV(1) and changes in VDV (r = -0.70, P = .02) and VDP (r = -0.70, P = .03). CONCLUSION: For this small pilot group of ex-smokers with COPD, (3)He MR imaging-derived VDV, VDP, and ADC measurements worsened significantly, but there was no significant change in FEV(1), suggesting increased sensitivity of hyperpolarized (3)He MR imaging for depicting COPD changes during short time periods

    The Growth Response of Tropical and Sub-Tropical Forage Species to Increasing Salinity

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    There is currently a growing coal seam gas (CSG) industry in Queensland, Australia. The industry requires beneficial-use strategies to consume the significant volumes of water released during CSG extraction. Irrigation of tropical and sub-tropical forage species for beef production is one option, however coal seam (CS) water is of varying quality due to moderate to high salinity and alkalinity. The application of chemically amended CS water over time could potentially increase soil salinity, which is known to reduce plant biomass production. While there were studies of salinity tolerance of many tropical and sub-tropical forage species 30 years ago, there is a need to examine the tolerance of more recently released species and cultivars which are suitable for planting in the Queensland CSG area

    Functional properties of in vitro excitatory cortical neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells

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    The in vitro derivation of regionally defined human neuron types from patient‐derived stem cells is now established as a resource to investigate human development and disease. Characterization of such neurons initially focused on the expression of developmentally regulated transcription factors and neural markers, in conjunction with the development of protocols to direct and chart the fate of differentiated neurons. However, crucial to the understanding and exploitation of this technology is to determine the degree to which neurons recapitulate the key functional features exhibited by their native counterparts, essential for determining their usefulness in modelling human physiology and disease in vitro. Here, we review the emerging data concerning functional properties of human pluripotent stem cell‐derived excitatory cortical neurons, in the context of both maturation and regional specificity. [Image: see text