11 research outputs found

    Kandungan Kapsaisin dalam Kultivar Capsicum annum

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    Thirteen cultivars of chilli Capsicum annum were used for the determination of capsaicin obtained from two stages of maturation, 25 and 40 days after flowering. The results showed that there was a significant difference (p > 0.05) in the capsaicin content among different cultivars for both stages. The range of capsaicin concentration for day 25 was 6.14 - 26.6 mg/g and 6.3 - 106.42 mg/g (dry weight) for day 40. Except for KA2 dan Abheim, other cultivars contained significantly higher concentration of capsiasin in day 40 compared to those in day 25. The range of capsaicin located in the placenta, the pericarp and the seeds was 47 - 60%, 27 - 41 %, 6 - 16%, respectively

    Perlindungan biokakisan keluli karbon akibat bakteria penurun sulfat yang dipencil daripada minyak mentah tropika

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    Ancaman biokakisan akibat aktiviti bakteria penurun sulfat (SRB) pada saluran paip keluli karbon dalam industri petroleum boleh menjejaskan kelancaran aliran pengangkutan minyak mentah dan meningkatkan kos pengoperasian. Usaha bagi melindungi keluli karbon serta pengawalan SRB masih memerlukan kajian yang berterusan. Dalam kajian ini, keberkesanan tetrametilamonium bromida (TMB), karboksimetil trimetilamonium (BTN) dan benzalkonium klorida (BKC) bagi melindungi keluli karbon di dalam persekitaran yang mengandungi SRB diuji melalui kaedah pengutuban elektrokimia dinamik (PED) dan morfologi keluli karbon dianalisis menggunakan mikroskop elektron imbasan. Analisis PED mendapati penggunaan TMB, BTN dan BKC masing-masing berupaya mengurangkan kadar kakisan sehingga 0.13, 0.56 dan 0.17 mm/thn berbanding 8.91 mm/thn pada larutan kawalan yang mengandungi SRB. Morfologi permukaan biofilem mengesahkan kadar pertumbuhan SRB serta hasilan metabolisme bakteria ini turut mengalami penyusutan. Kajian ini menunjukkan dua mekanisme kawalan kakisan didapati berlaku iaitu mekanisme perencatan kakisan melalui penjerapan sebatian amonium kuaterner pada permukaan keluli karbon serta berlakunya proses tindak balas mitigasi sebatian ini dengan bakteria SRB. Kesimpulannya, TMB, BTN dan BKC didapati berupaya melindungi keluli karbon daripada mengalami kakisan akibat aktiviti SRB

    Casson fluid convective flow in an accelerated microchannel with thermal radiation using the caputo fractional derivative

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    The effect of the Caputo fractional derivative in unsteady boundary layer Casson fluid flow in an accelerated microchannel is investigated. In the presence of thermal radiation, the partial differential equations that governed the problem are studied. Using appropriate dimensionless variables, fractional partial differential equations are translated into dimensionless governing equations. The equations are then transformed into linear ordinary differential equations and solved analytically using the Laplace transform technique. These modified equations are then solved using the proper method, and the result is obtained in the form of velocity and temperature profiles using the Zakian’s explicit formula approach. The influence of essential physical parameters on velocity and temperature profiles is investigated using graphical diagrams created with Mathcad software. It is found that the velocity and temperature profile increase as fractional parameter, and thermal radiation parameter increase. As Prandtl number increase, both profiles are decreasing. This result is crucial for understanding the fractional system of Casson fluid in microchannel

    Application of Caputo fractional derivatives to the convective flow of Casson fluids in a microchannel with thermal radiation

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    In this paper, the application of Caputo fractional derivative on unsteady boundary layer Casson fluid flow in a microchannel is studied. The partial differential equations which governed the problem are considered with the presence of thermal radiation. The fractional partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless governing equations using appropriate dimensionless variables. It is then solved analytically using the Laplace transform technique which transforms the equations into linear ordinary differential equations. These transformed equations are then solved using the appropriate method, and the inverse Laplace transform technique is applied to obtain the solution in form of velocity and temperature profiles. Graphical illustrations are acquired using Mathcad software and the influence of important physical parameters on velocity and temperature profiles are analyzed. Results show that thermal radiation and fractional parameter have enhanced the velocity and temperature profiles

    Fractional Casson fluid flow via oscillating motion of plate and microchannel

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    The impact of the Caputo fractional derivative on the unsteady mixed convention boundary layer flow of Casson fluid is investigated. It is evaluated the flow via two different geometries which are plate and microchannel with oscillating motion. The problems are modelled using a set of partial differential equations with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The dimensional equations are turned into dimensionless governing equations by using relevant dimensionless variables. The obtained solutions are transformed into fractional form using Caputo fractional derivative. The exact solutions are obtained using the Laplace transform approach. Inverse Laplace transform is applied to the oscillating plate problem while Zakian’s explicit formula approach is used to obtain the results of temperature and velocity profiles. Both profiles are graphed and studied its behaviour in both geometries. The temperature profile is shown to have an opposite pattern of graph for both geometries. While when compared between both geometries on its velocity profile, oscillating plate has a higher velocity compared to oscillating plate. For both profiles, increasing the fractional parameter resulted in a greater pattern. This study aids in the comprehension of Casson fluid flows in fractional systems

    Shariah information disclosure and its effect on financial perfomance among SMEs in Malaysia

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    Introduction: Shariah disclosure has become an important aspect in a Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The disclosure of shariah information would enhance the transparency and accountability of SMEs towards its stakeholders which in return helps promote the long-term profitability and sustainability. Objective: (1) examine the extensiveness of Shariah disclosure and (2) investigate the relationship between Shariah disclosure on product and services, financing, earnings and expenditure, social functions and environment and its effect on financial performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Methods: In total, 131 respondents comprised of owners and top management of SMEs in the state of Selangor, Kedah, Pahang, and Johor. The questionnaire was developed based on Shariah Index for Islamic Social Reporting and the data was analysed using multiple regression. Results: The findings indicated that Shariah disclosure on financing found to have significant relationship on the financial performance of SMEs. In contrast, products and services, earning and expenditure, social functions and environment were found to have no significant relationship on the financial performance of SMEs. The results also show that working environment for workers was disclosed extensively by SMEs while, earning expenditure on non-Shariah compliant the disclosure was less extensive

    Influence of benzyltriethylammonium chloride on biocorrosion activity of consortium bacteria from tropical crude oil

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    The performance of pipeline system used in petroleum industry is crucially declined by natural microbial activities and demanding extra operational cost. Requirement on high capability of functional substances is attracting worldwide research interest. The aim of this paper was to study the effectiveness of benzyltriethylammonium chloride (BTC) on reducing the activity of a consortium bacteria consisting of sulfate-reducing bacteria (C-SRB). C-SRB was isolated from tropical crude oil and enumeration of this consortium was measured by viable cell count technique. The effectiveness of BTC was calculated from potentiodynamic polarization method and biofilm analysis was performed by scanning electron microscope. The viable cell count technique indicated that the maximum growth of C-SRB was approximately 160 trillion CFU/mL at 7 days incubation period. BTC was capable of reducing biocorrosion activity due to adsorption process and mitigating SRB species. Biofilm analysis has proven that C-SRB activity is minimized due to less presence of bacterial growth, extracellular polymeric substances and corrosion product. In conclusion, BTC is capable to inhibit C-SRB activity on biocorrosion of carbon steel pipeline

    Shariah-related information disclosure and characteristics of enterprise among SMEs in Malaysia

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    Introduction: In Malaysia, SMEs are the potential and future growth to the economy of the country. However, they have not been given enough attention as the various researchers have been biased towards larger and listed enterprises in Malaysia.Objective: to examine the extensiveness of Shariah-related information disclosure among SMEs in Malaysia and to evaluate the relationship between Shariah-related information disclosure and Performance of SMEs. Methods: The study involved a self-developed questionnaire that was personally distributed to employees.In total, 150 questionnaires were distributed and 120 employees who work in various positions in different types of industries from North and East Malaysia participated as respondents of this study
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