383 research outputs found

    Effect of added salt on preformed surface nanobubbles: A scaling estimate\ud

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    In this paper we propose a scaling argument to quantify the role of added electrolyte salt in affecting the stability and the morphology of preformed surface nanobubbles on hydrophobic substrates like the water-OTS-silicon or the water-HOPG interfaces. The added salt controls the electric double layer formation as well as affects the zeta (ζ) potential at the air-water and solid-water interfaces. The resulting electrostatic wetting tension acts in conjunction with the air-water surface tension (analogous to electrowetting scenarios), thereby affecting the nanobubble morphologies. Weak ζ potential of the water-HOPG interface or the water-OTS-silicon interface at acidic pH ensures that the added salt will have imperceptible effect on the corresponding preformed surface nanobubbles, validating the experimental observations. However, at alkaline buffer pH for the OTS-silicon substrate, under certain system conditions, salt-induced ζ potential can be substantially high so that the properties of preformed surface nanobubbles will be affected. This paper will thus readdress the long-held universal notion that added salt, no matter in what concentration, will not influence the properties of preformed surface nanobubble

    Effect of impurities in the description of surface nanobubbles: Role of nonidealities in the surface layer\ud

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    In a recent study [ S. Das, J. H. Snoeijer and D. Lohse Phys. Rev. E 82 056310 (2010)], we provided quantitative demonstration of the conjecture [ W. A. Ducker Langmuir 25 8907 (2009)] that the presence of impurities at the surface layer (or the air-water interface) of surface nanobubbles can substantially lower the gas-side contact angle and the Laplace pressure of the nanobubbles. Through an analytical model for any general air-water interface without nonideality effects, we showed that a large concentration of soluble impurities at the air-water interface of the nanobubbles ensures significantly small contact angles (matching well with the experimental results) and Laplace pressure (though large enough to forbid stability). In this paper this general model is extended to incorporate the effect of nonidealities at the air-water interface in impurity-induced alteration of surface nanobubble properties. Such nonideality effects arise from finite enthalpy or entropy of mixing or finite ionic interactions of the impurity molecules at the nanobubble air-water interface and ensure significant lowering of the nanobubble contact angle and Laplace pressure even at relatively small impurity coverage. In fact for impurity molecules that show enhanced tendency to get adsorbed at the nanobubble air-water interface from the bulk phase, impurity-induced lowering of the nanobubble contact angle is witnessed for extremely small bulk concentration. Surface nanobubble experiments being typically performed in an ultraclean environment, the bulk concentration of impurities is inevitably very small, and in this light the present calculations can be viewed as a satisfactory explanation of the conjecture that impurities, even in trace concentration, have significant impact on surface nanobubble

    Practically secure quantum position verification

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    We discuss quantum position verification (QPV) protocols in which the verifiers create and send single-qubit states to the prover. QPV protocols using single-qubit states are known to be insecure against adversaries that share a small number of entangled qubits. We introduce QPV protocols that are practically secure: they only require single-qubit states from each of the verifiers, yet their security is broken if the adversaries share an impractically large number of shared entangled qubits. These protocols are a modification of known QPV protocols in which we include a classical random oracle without altering the amount of quantum resources needed by the verifiers. We present a cheating strategy that requires a number of entangled qubits shared among the adversaries that grows exponentially with the size of the classical input of the random oracle.Comment: v2: corrected errors, more detailed discussio

    Steric-effect-induced enhancement of electrical-double-layer overlapping phenomena\ud

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    In this paper, we demonstrate that nontrivial interactions between steric effect and electrical-double-layer (EDL) overlap phenomena may augment the effective extent of EDL overlap in narrow fluidic confinements to a significant extent by virtue of rendering the channel centerline potential tending to the ζ potential in a limiting sense as the steric effect progressively intensifies. Such a behavior may result in a virtually uniform (undiminished) magnitude of the EDL potential across the entire channel height and may cause lowering of the total charge within the EDL.\ud \u

    Quantum reading capacity: General definition and bounds

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    Quantum reading refers to the task of reading out classical information stored in a read-only memory device. In any such protocol, the transmitter and receiver are in the same physical location, and the goal of such a protocol is to use these devices (modeled by independent quantum channels), coupled with a quantum strategy, to read out as much information as possible from a memory device, such as a CD or DVD. As a consequence of the physical setup of quantum reading, the most natural and general definition for quantum reading capacity should allow for an adaptive operation after each call to the channel, and this is how we define quantum reading capacity in this paper. We also establish several bounds on quantum reading capacity, and we introduce an environment-parametrized memory cell with associated environment states, delivering second-order and strong converse bounds for its quantum reading capacity. We calculate the quantum reading capacities for some exemplary memory cells, including a thermal memory cell, a qudit erasure memory cell, and a qudit depolarizing memory cell. We finally provide an explicit example to illustrate the advantage of using an adaptive strategy in the context of zero-error quantum reading capacity.Comment: v3: 17 pages, 2 figures, final version published in IEEE Transactions on Information Theor

    Quantum rebound capacity

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    Inspired by the power of abstraction in information theory, we consider quantum rebound protocols as a way of providing a unifying perspective to deal with several information-processing tasks related to and extending quantum channel discrimination to the Shannon-theoretic regime. Such protocols, defined in the most general quantum-physical way possible, have been considered in the physical context of the DW model of quantum reading [Das and Wilde, arXiv:1703.03706]. In [Das, arXiv:1901.05895], it was discussed how such protocols apply in the different physical context of round-trip communication from one party to another and back. The common point for all quantum rebound tasks is that the decoder himself has access to both the input and output of a randomly selected sequence of channels, and the goal is to determine a message encoded into the channel sequence. As employed in the DW model of quantum reading, the most general quantum-physical strategy that a decoder can employ is an adaptive strategy, in which general quantum operations are executed before and after each call to a channel in the sequence. We determine lower and upper bounds on the quantum rebound capacities in various scenarios of interest, and we also discuss cases in which adaptive schemes provide an advantage over non-adaptive schemes in zero-error quantum rebound protocols.Comment: v2: published version, 7 pages, 2 figures, see companion paper at arXiv:1703.0370

    Bipartite Quantum Interactions: Entangling and Information Processing Abilities

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    The aim of this thesis is to advance the theory behind quantum information processing tasks, by deriving fundamental limits on bipartite quantum interactions and dynamics, which corresponds to an underlying Hamiltonian that governs the physical transformation of a two-body open quantum system. The goal is to determine entangling abilities of such arbitrary bipartite quantum interactions. Doing so provides fundamental limitations on information processing tasks, including entanglement distillation and secret key generation, over a bipartite quantum network. We also discuss limitations on the entropy change and its rate for dynamics of an open quantum system weakly interacting with the bath. We introduce a measure of non-unitarity to characterize the deviation of a doubly stochastic quantum process from a noiseless evolution. Next, we introduce information processing tasks for secure read-out of digital information encoded in read-only memory devices against adversaries of varying capabilities. The task of reading a memory device involves the identification of an interaction process between probe system, which is in known state, and the memory device. Essentially, the information is stored in the choice of channels, which are noisy quantum processes in general and are chosen from a publicly known set. Hence, it becomes pertinent to securely read memory devices against scrutiny of an adversary. In particular, for a secure read-out task called private reading when a reader is under surveillance of a passive eavesdropper, we have determined upper bounds on its performance. We do so by leveraging the fact that private reading of digital information stored in a memory device can be understood as secret key agreement via a specific kind of bipartite quantum interaction.Comment: PhD Thesis (minor revision). Also available at: https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/gradschool_dissertations/4717