25 research outputs found

    Modeling the microbial pretreatment of camelina straw and switchgrass by Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium via solid-state fermentation process: A growth kinetic sub-model in the context of biomass-based biorefineries

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    Advancing microbial pretreatment of lignocellulose has the potential not only to reduce the carbon footprint and environmental impacts of the pretreatment processes from cradle-to-grave, but also increase biomass valorization, support agricultural growers, and boost the bioeconomy. Mathematical modeling of microbial pretreatment of lignocellulose provides insights into the metabolic activities of the microorganisms as responses to substrate and environment and provides baseline targets for the design, development, and optimization of solid-state-fermentation (SSF) bioreactors, including substrate concentrations, heat and mass transfer. In this study, the growth of Trametes versicolor 52J (TV52J), Trametes versicolor m4D (TVm4D), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PC) on camelina straw (CS) and switchgrass (SG) during an SSF process was examined. While TV52J illustrated the highest specific growth rate and maximum cell concentration, a mutant strain deficient in cellulose catabolism, TVm4D, performed best in terms of holocellulose preservation and delignification. The hybrid logistic-Monod equation along with holocellulose consumption and delignification models described well the growth kinetics. The oxygen uptake rate and carbon dioxide production rate were directly correlated to the fungal biomass concentration; however, a more sophisticated non-linear relationship might explain those correlations better than a linear model. This study provides an informative baseline for developing SSF systems to integrate fungal pretreatment into a large-scale, on-farm, wet-storage process for the utilization of agricultural residues as feedstocks for biofuel production

    TERPENOIDS FROM THE LEAVES AND STEMS OF DYSOXYLUM TPONGENSE

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    Study on chemical constituents from the leaves and stems of Dysoxylum tpongense Pierre resulted in the isolation of six known compounds (1‚Äď6). The chemical structures of isolated compounds were identified as cabraleahydroxylactone (1), cabraleahydroxylactone-3-acetate (2), (+) spathulenol (3), b-sitosterol (4), stigmasterol (5), and stigmast-4-en-3-one (6) by comparison of the physicochemical, interpretation of NMR and mass spectral data with that reported in the literature

    Can a Short Food Supply Chain Create Sustainable Benefits for Small Farmers in Developing Countries? An Exploratory Study of Vietnam

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    A number of studies have indicated that short food supply chains could create economic, social, and environmental benefits, but most of those chains were implemented in developed countries. This research aims to find out the characteristics of short food supply chains and their benefits to small farmers in Vietnam, which is a developing country, based on the survey results from 338 small farmers in the third quarter of 2020, with the support of Stata 14 software. The results showed that the short food supply chains in the survey sample in Vietnam were characterized by two main actors: small farmers and distributors. Farmers could sell products flexibly at the local market. There was some initial evidence to prove that these chains helped to stabilize the input, output price, and revenue; formulated sustainable income; and increased the satisfaction and confidence of farmers. They eliminated gender discrimination in rural areas and improved livelihood for ethnic minorities. These chains also enhanced the mindset on green, organic, and clean production of farmers, which in turn created environmental benefits. COVID-19 has posed a negative impact on the income of farmers and made them change their production and sales method. Therefore, the research could suggest some policies to sustainably develop the short food supply chains in Vietnam in the future

    Effects of water scarcity awareness and climate change belief on recycled water usage willingness: Evidence from New Mexico, United States

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    The global water crisis is being exacerbated by climate change, even in the United States. Recycled water is a feasible alternative to alleviate the water shortage, but it is constrained by humans’ perceptions. The current study examines how residents’ water scarcity awareness and climate change belief influence their willingness to use recycled water directly and indirectly. Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) analytics was employed on a dataset of 1831 residents in Albuquerque, New Mexico, an arid inland region in the US. We discovered that residents’ willingness to use direct recycled potable water is positively affected by their awareness of water scarcity, but the effect is conditional on their belief in the impacts of climate change on the water cycle. Meanwhile, the willingness to use indirect recycled potable water is influenced by water scarcity awareness, and the belief in climate change further enhances this effect. These findings implicate that fighting climate change denialism and informing the public of the water scarcity situation in the region can contribute to the effectiveness and sustainability of long-term water conservation and climate change alleviation efforts

    Associations of Underlying Health Conditions With Anxiety and Depression Among Outpatients: Modification Effects of Suspected COVID-19 Symptoms, Health-Related and Preventive Behaviors

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    Objectives: We explored the association of underlying health conditions (UHC) with depression and anxiety, and examined the modification effects of suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S), health-related behaviors (HB), and preventive behaviors (PB).Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8,291 outpatients aged 18‚Äď85 years, in 18 hospitals and health centers across Vietnam from 14th February to May 31, 2020. We collected the data regarding participant's characteristics, UHC, HB, PB, depression, and anxiety.Results: People with UHC had higher odds of depression (OR = 2.11; p < 0.001) and anxiety (OR = 2.86; p < 0.001) than those without UHC. The odds of depression and anxiety were significantly higher for those with UHC and S-COVID-19-S (p < 0.001); and were significantly lower for those had UHC and interacted with ‚Äúunchanged/more‚ÄĚ physical activity (p < 0.001), or ‚Äúunchanged/more‚ÄĚ drinking (p < 0.001 for only anxiety), or ‚Äúunchanged/healthier‚ÄĚ eating (p < 0.001), and high PB score (p < 0.001), as compared to those without UHC and without S-COVID-19-S, ‚Äúnever/stopped/less‚ÄĚ physical activity, drinking, ‚Äúless healthy‚ÄĚ eating, and low PB score, respectively.Conclusion: S-COVID-19-S worsen psychological health in patients with UHC. Physical activity, drinking, healthier eating, and high PB score were protective factors

    Safety and efficacy of fluoxetine on functional outcome after acute stroke (AFFINITY): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background Trials of fluoxetine for recovery after stroke report conflicting results. The Assessment oF FluoxetINe In sTroke recoverY (AFFINITY) trial aimed to show if daily oral fluoxetine for 6 months after stroke improves functional outcome in an ethnically diverse population. Methods AFFINITY was a randomised, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done in 43 hospital stroke units in Australia (n=29), New Zealand (four), and Vietnam (ten). Eligible patients were adults (aged ‚Č•18 years) with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke in the previous 2‚Äď15 days, brain imaging consistent with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke, and a persisting neurological deficit that produced a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 1 or more. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 via a web-based system using a minimisation algorithm to once daily, oral fluoxetine 20 mg capsules or matching placebo for 6 months. Patients, carers, investigators, and outcome assessors were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was functional status, measured by the mRS, at 6 months. The primary analysis was an ordinal logistic regression of the mRS at 6 months, adjusted for minimisation variables. Primary and safety analyses were done according to the patient's treatment allocation. The trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12611000774921. Findings Between Jan 11, 2013, and June 30, 2019, 1280 patients were recruited in Australia (n=532), New Zealand (n=42), and Vietnam (n=706), of whom 642 were randomly assigned to fluoxetine and 638 were randomly assigned to placebo. Mean duration of trial treatment was 167 days (SD 48¬∑1). At 6 months, mRS data were available in 624 (97%) patients in the fluoxetine group and 632 (99%) in the placebo group. The distribution of mRS categories was similar in the fluoxetine and placebo groups (adjusted common odds ratio 0¬∑94, 95% CI 0¬∑76‚Äď1¬∑15; p=0¬∑53). Compared with patients in the placebo group, patients in the fluoxetine group had more falls (20 [3%] vs seven [1%]; p=0¬∑018), bone fractures (19 [3%] vs six [1%]; p=0¬∑014), and epileptic seizures (ten [2%] vs two [<1%]; p=0¬∑038) at 6 months. Interpretation Oral fluoxetine 20 mg daily for 6 months after acute stroke did not improve functional outcome and increased the risk of falls, bone fractures, and epileptic seizures. These results do not support the use of fluoxetine to improve functional outcome after stroke

    In silico screening of anthraquinones from Prismatomeris memecyloides as novel phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE-5Is) [Cribado virtual de antraquinonas procedentes de Prismatomeris memecyloides como inhibidores noveles de fosfodiesterasa tipo 5 (PDE-5Is)]

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    Objective: Prismatomeris memecyloides Craib (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used by ethnic minorities in Vietnam for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical compositions and screen in silico its possible inhibitory effect against PDE-5 which reduced cyclic guanosine-3‚Ä≤,5‚Ä≤-monophosphate (cGMP) levels and indirectly caused the male ED. Methods: Separation of natural compounds were carried out on chromatographic column with silica gel or reversed phase materials, eluting with different solvent gradients. The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data (HR-MS, 1D/2D-NMR). Docking simulation study of compound (1‚Äď7) was performed by using flexible side chains protocol based on Iterated Local Search Global Optimizer Algorithm of AutoDock/Vina v.1.1.2. Pharmacokinetic parameters and toxicity prediction were also calculated by appropriate softwares. Results: From the methanol extract of roots of P. memecyloides collected in Vietnam, seven compounds including four anthraquinone/one anthraquinone glycoside namely damnacanthal (1), lucidin-ŌČ-methyl ether (2), 3-methylalizarin (3), rubiadin-3-methyl ether (4), and 1-O-methylrubiadin 3-O-primeveroside (5) along with two iridoid glucosides, asperulosidic acid (6) and aitchisonide A (7) were isolated. The molecular modeling results showed that 5 anthraquinone compounds possess the lowest binding energies to PDE-5. The anthraquinone glucoside 1-O-methylrubiadin 3-O-primeveroside (5) potentially inhibited PDE-5 similarly to commercial PDE-5Is sildenafil (SLD) and tadalafil (TLD). Calculated pharmacokinetic results like pIC50,pred; miLogP, TPSA, enzyme inhibitory of anthraquinone glucoside (5) were similar and even higher to those of the commercial PDE-5 inhibitors. Especially the predictive toxicity of 1-O-methylrubiadin 3-O-primeveroside (5) was even lower than those of SLD and TLD. Conclusion: This is the first study to find a scientific-based evidence for the ethnic use of P. memecyloides as medicinal plant for the treatment of ED. The result indicates that the anthraquinones (damnacanthal (1), lucidin-ŌČ-methyl ether (2), 3-methylalizarin (3) and rubiadin-3-methyl ether (4)), especially anthraquinone glycoside (1-O-methylrubiadin 3-O-primeveroside (5)) are compounds of potential novel drug class for the ED treatment

    Nonlinear Extended Observer-Based ADRC for a Lower-Limb PAM-Based Exoskeleton

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    In lower-limb rehabilitation systems, exoskeleton robots are one of the most important components. These robots help patients to execute repetitive exercises under the guidance of physiotherapists. Recently, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM), a kind of actuator that acts similarly to human muscles, have been chosen to power the exoskeleton robot for better human‚Äďmachine interaction. In order to enhance the performance of a PAM-based exoskeleton robot, this article implements an active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) strategy with a nonlinear extended state observer (NLESO). Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop system is proved by Lyapunov‚Äôs theory. Finally, the experimental results show that with the proposed control strategy, the rehabilitation robot can effectively track the desired trajectories even when under external disturbance
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