308 research outputs found

    Energy transport and fluctuations in small conductors

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    The Landauer-B\"uttiker formalism provides a simple and insightful way for investigating many phenomena in mesoscopic physics. By this approach we derive general formulas for the energy properties and apply them to the basic setups. Of particular interest are the noise properties. We show that energy current fluctuations can be induced by zero-point fluctuations and we discuss the implications of this result.Comment: Revised and corrected versio

    Simulation of capillary infiltration into packing structures by the Lattice-Boltzmann method for the optimization of ceramic materials

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    In this work we want to simulate with the Lattice-Boltzmann method in 2D the capillary infiltration into porous structures obtained from the packing of particles. The experimental problem motivating our work is the densification of carbon preforms by reactive melt infiltration. The aim is to determine optimization principles for the manufacturing of high-performance ceramics. Simulations are performed for packings with varying structural properties. Our analysis suggests that the observed slow infiltrations can be ascribed to interface dynamics. Pinning represents the primary factor retarding fluid penetration. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is analyzed in detail. When surface growth is allowed, it is found that the phenomenon of pinning becomes stronger. Systems trying to reproduce typical experimental conditions are also investigated. It turns out that the standard for accurate simulations is challenging. The primary obstacle to overcome for enhanced accuracy seems to be the over-occurrence of pinning

    Coarse-graining MARTINI model for molecular-dynamics simulations of the wetting properties of graphitic surfaces with non-ionic, long-chain and T-shaped surfactants

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    We report on a molecular dynamics investigation of the wetting properties of graphitic surfaces by various solutions at concentrations 1-8 wt% of commercially available non-ionic surfactants with long hydrophilic chains, linear or T-shaped. These are surfactants of length up to 160 [\AA]. It turns out that molecular dynamics simulations of such systems ask for a number of solvent particles that can be reached without seriously compromising computational efficiency only by employing a coarse-grained model. The MARTINI force field with polarizable water offers a framework particularly suited for the parameterization of our systems. In general, its advantages over other coarse-grained models are the possibility to explore faster long time scales and the wider range of applicability. Although the accuracy is sometimes put under question, the results for the wetting properties by pure water are in good agreement with those for the corresponding atomistic systems and theoretical predictions. On the other hand, the bulk properties of various aqueous surfactant solutions indicate that the micellar formation process is too strong. For this reason, a typical experimental configuration is better approached by preparing the droplets with the surfactants arranged in the initial state in the vicinity of contact line. Cross-comparisons are possible and illuminating, but equilibrium contanct angles as obtained from simulations overestimate the experimental results. Nevertheless, our findings can provide guidelines for the preliminary assessment and screening of surfactants. [See pdf file for full abstract]Comment: Revised version. Publication: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4747827. Material: https://sites.google.com/site/material4sim

    Surface growth for molten silicon infiltration into carbon millimeter-sized channels: Lattice-Boltzmann simulations, experiments and models

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    The process of liquid silicon infiltration is investigated for channels with radii from 0.250.25 to 0.750.75 [mm] drilled in compact carbon preforms. The advantage of this setup is that the study of the phenomenon results to be simplified. For comparison purposes, attempts are made in order to work out a framework for evaluating the accuracy of simulations. The approach relies on dimensionless numbers involving the properties of the surface reaction. It turns out that complex hydrodynamic behavior derived from second Newton law can be made consistent with Lattice-Boltzmann simulations. The experiments give clear evidence that the growth of silicon carbide proceeds in two different stages and basic mechanisms are highlighted. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations prove to be an effective tool for the description of the growing phase. Namely, essential experimental constraints can be implemented. As a result, the existing models are useful to gain more insight on the process of reactive infiltration into porous media in the first stage of penetration, i.e. up to pore closure because of surface growth. A way allowing to implement the resistance from chemical reaction in Darcy law is also proposed
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