233 research outputs found

    [Review of] St. Clair Drake. Black Folk Here and There , vol. I

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    St. Clair Drake, the recently deceased anthropologist, has written an elaborate summary essay on the black experience as it relates to the continent of Africa. In his latter years at Stanford University, Drake was head of the University\u27s Black Studies program. It appears obvious that Drake\u27s consciousness was raised during this particular time span. The research and writing of this book is far different from his seminal work with Clayton (Black Metropolis, 1945). In his emeritus years, Drake decided to seek the high ground of an historical anthropological-philosopher and address certain issues that W.E.B. DuBois considered paramount to the study of black people throughout the diaspora

    Optimizing patient care and outcomes through the congenital heart center of the 21st century

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    Pediatric cardiovascular services are responding to the dynamic changes in the medical environment, including the business of medicine. The opportunity to advance our pediatric cardiology field through collaboration is now realized, permitting us to define meaningful quality metrics and establish national benchmarks through multicenter efforts. In March 2016, the American College of Cardiology hosted the first Adult Congenital/Pediatric Cardiology Section Congenital Heart Community Day. This was an open participation meeting for clinicians, administrators, patients/parents to propose metrics that optimize patient care and outcomes for a stateâ ofâ theâ art congenital heart center of the 21st century. Care center collaboration helps overcome the barrier of relative small volumes at any given program. Patients and families have become active collaborative partners with care centers in the definition of acute and longitudinal outcomes and our quality metrics. Understanding programmatic metrics that create an environment to provide outstanding congenital heart care will allow centers to improve their structure, processes and ultimately outcomes, leading to an increasing number of centers that provide excellent care. This manuscript provides background, as well listing of proposed specialty domain quality metrics for centers, and thus serves as an updated baseline for the ongoing dynamic process of optimizing care and realizing patient value.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/143653/1/chd12575_am.pdfhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/143653/2/chd12575.pd

    The global distribution and diversity of protein vaccine candidate antigens in the highly virulent Streptococcus pnuemoniae serotype 1

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    Serotype 1 is one of the most common causes of pneumococcal disease worldwide. Pneumococcal protein vaccines are currently being developed as an alternate intervention strategy to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Pre-requisites for an efficacious pneumococcal protein vaccine are universal presence and minimal variation of the target antigen in the pneumococcal population, and the capability to induce a robust human immune response. We used in silico analysis to assess the prevalence of seven protein vaccine candidates (CbpA, PcpA, PhtD, PspA, SP0148, SP1912, SP2108) among 445 serotype 1 pneumococci from 26 different countries, across four continents. CbpA (76%), PspA (68%), PhtD (28%), PcpA (11%) were not universally encoded in the study population, and would not provide full coverage against serotype 1. PcpA was widely present in the European (82%), but not in the African (2%) population. A multi-valent vaccine incorporating CbpA, PcpA, PhtD and PspA was predicted to provide coverage against 86% of the global population. SP0148, SP1912 and SP2108 were universally encoded and we further assessed their predicted amino acid, antigenic and structural variation. Multiple allelic variants of these proteins were identified, different allelic variants dominated in different continents; the observed variation was predicted to impact the antigenicity and structure of two SP0148 variants, one SP1912 variant and four SP2108 variants, however these variants were each only present in a small fraction of the global population (<2%). The vast majority of the observed variation was predicted to have no impact on the efficaciousness of a protein vaccine incorporating a single variant of SP0148, SP1912 and/or SP2108 from S. pneumoniae TIGR4. Our findings emphasise the importance of taking geographic differences into account when designing global vaccine interventions and support the continued development of SP0148, SP1912 and SP2108 as protein vaccine candidates against this important pneumococcal serotype

    Sensory Input Pathways and Mechanisms in Swallowing: A Review

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    Over the past 20 years, research on the physiology of swallowing has confirmed that the oropharyngeal swallowing process can be modulated, both volitionally and in response to different sensory stimuli. In this review we identify what is known regarding the sensory pathways and mechanisms that are now thought to influence swallowing motor control and evoke its response. By synthesizing the current state of research evidence and knowledge, we identify continuing gaps in our knowledge of these mechanisms and pose questions for future research

    Research, evidence and policymaking: the perspectives of policy actors on improving uptake of evidence in health policy development and implementation in Uganda

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Use of evidence in health policymaking plays an important role, especially in resource-constrained settings where informed decisions on resource allocation are paramount. Several knowledge translation (KT) models have been developed, but few have been applied to health policymaking in low income countries. If KT models are expected to explain evidence uptake and implementation, or lack of it, they must be contextualized and take into account the specificity of low income countries for example, the strong influence of donors. The main objective of this research is to elaborate a Middle Range Theory (MRT) of KT in Uganda that can also serve as a reference for other low- and middle income countries.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>This two-step study employed qualitative approaches to examine the principal barriers and facilitating factors to KT. Step 1 involved a literature review and identification of common themes. The results informed the development of the initial MRT, which details the facilitating factors and barriers to KT at the different stages of research and policy development. In Step 2, these were further refined through key informant interviews with policymakers and researchers in Uganda. Deductive content and thematic analysis was carried out to assess the degree of convergence with the elements of the initial MRT and to identify other emerging issues.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Review of the literature revealed that the most common emerging facilitating factors could be grouped under institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics, dissemination, partnerships and political context. The analysis of interviews, however, showed that policymakers and researchers ranked institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics and partnerships as the most important. New factors emphasized by respondents were the use of mainstreamed structures within MoH to coordinate and disseminate research, the separation of roles between researchers and policymakers, and the role of the community and civil society in KT.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>This study refined an initial MRT on KT in policymaking in the health sector in Uganda that was based on a literature review. It provides a framework that can be used in empirical research of the process of KT on specific policy issues.</p

    Cortical swallowing processing in early subacute stroke

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Dysphagia is a major complication in hemispheric as well as brainstem stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia and increased mortality. Little is known about the recovery from dysphagia after stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the different patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with hemispheric and brainstem stroke with and without dysphagia in the early subacute phase.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We measured brain activity by mean of whole-head MEG in 37 patients with different stroke localisation 8.2 +/- 4.8 days after stroke to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced swallowing. An age matched group of healthy subjects served as controls. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry and group analyses were performed using a permutation test.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Our results demonstrate strong bilateral reduction of cortical swallowing activation in dysphagic patients with hemispheric stroke. In hemispheric stroke without dysphagia, bilateral activation was found. In the small group of patients with brainstem stroke we observed a reduction of cortical activation and a right hemispheric lateralization.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Bulbar central pattern generators coordinate the pharyngeal swallowing phase. The observed right hemispheric lateralization in brainstem stroke can therefore be interpreted as acute cortical compensation of subcortically caused dysphagia. The reduction of activation in brainstem stroke patients and dysphagic patients with cortical stroke could be explained in terms of diaschisis.</p