2,516 research outputs found

    Years of Schooling, Human Capital and the Body Mass Index of European Females

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    We use the compulsory school reforms implemented in European countries after the II World War to investigate the causal effect of education on the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the incidence of overweight and obesity among European females. Our IV estimates suggest that years of schooling have a protective effect on BMI. The size of the estimated effect is not negligible but smaller than the one found in comparable recent work for the US. We depart from the current empirical literature in three main directions. First, we use a multi-country approach. Second, we complement the standard analysis of the causal impact of years of schooling on BMI with one relying on a broader measure of education, i.e. individual standardized cognitive tests, and show that the current focus in the literature on years of schooling as the measure of education is not misplaced. Last, we evaluate whether the current focus on conditional mean effects should be integrated with an approach which allows for heterogeneous responses to changes in compulsory education. Although our evidence based on quantile regressions is mixed, there is some indication that the protective effect of schooling does not increase monotonically from the lower to the upper quantile of the distribution of BMI. Rather, the marginal effect is stronger among overweight (but not obese) females than among females with BMI above 30.obesity, human capital, Europe

    Years of Schooling, Human Capital and the Body Mass Index of European Females

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    We find that the protective effect of years of schooling on the BMI of European females is non negligible, but smaller than the one recently found for the US. By using individual standardized cognitive tests instead of years of schooling as the measure of education we show that the current focus in the literature on years of schooling is not misplaced. We also investigate whether the response to changes in compulsory education is heterogeneous, and find that the protective effect of schooling is stronger among overweight than among obese females.Obesity, human capital, Europe

    A Transdisciplinary Approach for the Design Optimization of Medical Simulations

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    Simulation in healthcare is rapidly replacing more traditional educational methods, becoming a fundamental step in the medical training path. Medical simulations have a remarkable impact not only on learners’ competencies and skills but also on their attitudes, behaviors, and emotions such as anxiety, stress, mental effort, and frustration. All these aspects are transferred to the real practice and reflected on patients’ safety and outcomes. The design of medical simulations passes through a careful analysis of learning objectives, technology to be used, instructor’s and learners’ roles, performance assessment, and so on. However, an overall methodology for the simulation assessment and consequent optimization is still lacking. The present work proposes a transdisciplinary framework for the analysis of simulation effectiveness in terms of learners’ performance, ergonomics conditions, and emotional states. It involves collaboration among different professional figures such as engineers, clinicians, specialized trainers, and human factors specialists. The aim is to define specific guidelines for the simulation optimization, to obtain enhanced learners’ performance, improved ergonomics, and consequently positively affect the patient treatment, leading to cost savings for the healthcare system. The proposed framework has been tested on a low-fidelity simulation for the training of rachicentesis and has allowed the definition of general rules for its enhancement

    Scale properties of the seismic wavefield - perspectives for full waveform matching

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    Starting from the nondimensionalization of equations of motion we partition the set of the velocity models in equivalence classes, such that the full waveform of an element in a given class can be calculated from the full waveform of any other element in the same class by scaling model parameters. We give a formal derivation of the seismic wavefield scale properties and we prove their capability through the use of numerical examples. Besides this, we introduce how the scale properties can be used to save computational time in full waveform modeling and inversion. In forward modeling we can use them for the calculation of the full waveform of any model in the same equivalence class of a model whose full waveform has been previously calculated. In full waveform inversion, scale properties can be used for full waveform matching: Given an experimental seismogram and a synthetic one, we can choose, in the same class of the synthetic model, another element whose waveform is closer to the experimental on

    A Novel Family with Demyelinating Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease Caused by a Mutation in the PMP2 Gene: A Case Series of Nine Patients and a Brief Review of the Literature

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    Introduction: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is a group of inherited peripheral neuropathies characterized by wide genotypic and phenotypic variability. The onset is typically in childhood, and the most frequent clinical manifestations are predominantly distal muscle weakness, hypoesthesia, foot deformity (pes cavus) and areflexia. In the long term, complications such as muscle-tendon retractions, extremity deformities, muscle atrophy and pain may occur. Among CMT1, demyelinating and autosomal dominant forms, CMT1G is determined by mutations in the PMP2 myelin protein. Results: Starting from the index case, we performed a clinical, electrophysiological, neuroradiological and genetic evaluation of all family members for three generations; we identified p.Ile50del in PMP2 in all the nine affected members. They presented a typical clinical phenotype, with childhood-onset variable severity between generations and a chronic demyelinating sensory-motor polyneuropathy on the electrophysiologic examination; the progression was slow to very slow and predominant in the lower limbs. Our study reports a relatively large sample of patients, members of the same family, with CMT1G by PMP2, which is a rare form of demyelinating CMT, highlighting the genetic variability of the CMT family instead of the overlapping clinical phenotypes within demyelinating forms. To date, only supportive and preventive measures for the most severe complications are available; therefore, we believe that early diagnosis (clinical, electrophysiological and genetic) allows access to specialist follow-up and therapies, thereby improving the quality of life of patients

    Memtransistor Devices Based on MoS 2 Multilayers with Volatile Switching due to Ag Cation Migration

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    In the recent years, the need for fast, robust, and scalable memory devices have spurred the exploration of advanced materials with unique electrical properties. Among these materials, 2D semiconductors are promising candidates as they combine atomically thin size, semiconductor behavior, and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatibility. Here a three-terminal memtransistor device, based on multilayer MoS2 with ultrashort channel length, that combines the usual transistor behavior of 2D semiconductors with resistive switching memory operation is presented. The volatile switching behavior is explained by the Ag cation migration along the channel surface. An extensive physical and electrical characterization to investigate the fundamental properties of the device, is presented. Finally, a chain-type memory array architecture similar to a NAND flash structure consisting of memtransistors is demonstrated, where the individual memory devices can be selected for write and read, paving the way for high-density, 3D memories based on 2D semiconductors
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