72 research outputs found

    Building knowledge for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander remote tourism: lessons from comparable tourism initiatives around the world

    Get PDF
    This report aims to build knowledge about what issues Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people may need to consider in remote tourism by reviewing, compiling and drawing insights from comparable tourism initiatives around the world.The report is based on information from a range of sources that highlight remote tourism issues at many different levels of strategy and development , from the micro level of ensuring engagement with local service providers, to the broad level of collaboration strategies with diverse interest groups. The examples identify a wealth of remote tourism roles available to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, demonstrating that remote tourism is complicated and people should examine which roles are appropriate and achievable.The report covers the main remote area landscape settings: remote arid and semi-arid areas (deserts), remote rainforests, remote high altitude mountainous areas, and remote cold and warm water islands. Each section discusses a collection of cases and other tourism initiatives by people s indigenous to the respective remote landscape settings. Many cases illustrate the desires of people around the world to preserve natural and cultural qualities while sharing remote areas through tourism. Summaries from each case identify issues that progressively build further insight into the challenges and strategies people from around the world have applied to remote tourism.A limitation of the report is that the review provides a snapshot of remote tourism activity throughout the world; it has not been able to say which of these activities are sustainable. Nevertheless, this approach uncovers the gravity of challenges faced by Indigenous peoples around the world involved in remote tourism, with the common dependence on external sources particularly noted. While presenting the strategies used in the various international contexts to contend with the challenges, the report suggests that local knowledge and insight cannot be underestimated as a major factor in developing successful Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tourism businesses

    Building knowledge for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander remote tourism: key visitor markets and opportunities in remote Australia

    Get PDF
    This report  provides an overview of various visitor markets relevant to remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people involved in tourism. The report accumulates this information for CRC-REP stakeholders to update existing market knowledge and stimulate remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to consider broad development opportunities based on accessible visitor segments. The report divides the market descriptions into two categories: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tourism, and remote tourism. The third section of the report provides a snapshot of visitor segments in three different destination regions of remote Australia.Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tourism market segments include international and domestic visitors, with the key international visitor markets including Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States and South Korea. Visitor numbers from many of these countries have reduced in recent years, and overall international Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tourism visitor numbers have also declined. However, there has been growth in visitors from China. Statistics and research about domestic markets for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tourism show that this segment has also recorded a downward trend in recent years. Other challenges for the domestic market include matching Aboriginal tourism experiences with domestic visitor expectations.The report also draws attention to a range of remote tourism visitor segments, including four-wheel drivers, caravanners and campers, grey nomads, volunteers, wildlife visitors, fishing enthusiasts and ecotourists. The needs of each segment offer diverse tourism development opportunities, and the information in this report may stimulate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people involved in tourism to cater to segments accessible in their regions. Finally, the report discusses visitor segments in three destination regions of remote Australia. It highlights that while different regions can share some visitor segments, the diversity of remote Australia requires decision making that combines localised insight with an understanding of remote tourism.Although it presents a brief outline of many remote visitor segments, this report is unable to specify visitor segments and tourism initiatives relevant to every destination region of remote Australia, because decision makers must determine the unique tourism potential specific to their region

    Aboriginal domestic tourism leadership towards reconciliation in Australia

    Get PDF
    The worldmaking possibilities of domestic tourism provide Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia with the potential to take leadership over the challenging interpersonal encounters necessary to the process of reconciliation. This proposition is drawn from a philosophical hermeneutic view of domestic tourism hosts and guests as always already bound by complex histories they cannot change. The paper demonstrates that tourism can enable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to operate enterprises based on customary cultural law of neutral meeting places attuned to the difficult interpersonal challenges of Reconciliation. Neutral meeting places do not impose reconciliation onto domestic tourists, the intent is to instead exercise everyday humanity and compassion while enabling visitors to fulfil their travel desires. The findings suggest that visitors can become oriented to Aboriginal ways of being and stimulated to learn. As interactions progress, visitors can reach readiness to take up opportunities for genuine dialogue with Aboriginal hosts. Outcomes raised in this paper highlight that tourism can enable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, as colonised people, to implement their cultural authority to take leadership over perplexing historical legacies woven through the fabric of a Western-dominated society conditioned by colonialism.

    Australian marine radiocarbon reservoir effects: ΔR atlas and ΔR calculator for Australian mainland coasts and near-shore islands

    Get PDF
    Studies of pre-bomb mollusks live-collected around the Australian coastline have concluded that near-shore marine radiocarbon reservoir effects are small and relatively uniform. These studies are based on limited samples of sometimes dubious quality representing only selective parts of Australia’s lengthy coastline. We systematically examine spatial variability in the marine radiocarbon reservoir effect (ΔR) through analysis of 292 live-collected mollusk samples across the Australian mainland coasts and near-shore islands subject to strict selection criteria. This study presents 233 new ΔR values combined with an evaluation of 59 previously published values. Results demonstrate significant spatial variability in marine radiocarbon reservoir effects across the study region. ΔR values range from 68 ± 24 14C years off the Pilbara region of Western Australia to –337 ± 46 14C years in the southern Gulf of Carpentaria in Queensland. Most sets of local values exhibit internal consistency, reflecting the dominant influence of regional oceanography, including depletion in ΔR values southwards along the eastern Australian coastline coincident with the East Australian Current. Anomalous values are attributed to inaccurate documentation, species-specific relationships with the carbon cycle and/or short-term fluctuations in marine radiocarbon activities. To account for the heterogeneous distribution of marine 14C, we recommend using a location specific ΔR value calculated using the Australian ΔR Calculator, available at: https://delta-r-calc.jcu.io/

    Luminance-polarity distribution across the symmetry axis affects the electrophysiological response to symmetry

    Get PDF
    Electrophysiological studies of symmetry have found a difference wave termed the Sustained Posterior Negativity (SPN) related to the presence of symmetry. Yet the extent to which the SPN is modulated by luminance-polarity and colour content is unknown. Here we examine how luminance-polarity distribution across the symmetry axis, grouping by luminance polarity, and the number of colours in the stimuli, modulate the SPN. Stimuli were dot patterns arranged either symmetrically or quasi-randomly. There were several arrangements: ’segregated’-symmetric dots were of one polarity and random dots of the other; ‘unsegregated’-symmetric dots were of both polarities in equal proportions; ‘anti-symmetric’-dots were of opposite polarity across the symmetry axis; ‘polarity-grouped anti-symmetric’-as anti-symmetric but with half the pattern of one polarity and the other opposite; multi-colour symmetric patterns made of either two, three and four colours. We found that the SPN is: reduced by the amount of position-symmetry, sensitive to luminance-polarity mismatch across the symmetry axis and not modulated by the number of colours in the stimuli. Our results show that the sustained nature of the SPN coincides with the late onset of a topographic microstate sensitive to symmetry. These findings emphasise the importance of not only position symmetry, but also luminance polarity matching across the symmetry axis

    The second workshop on lists of commercial fish and shellfish species for reporting of MSFD D3 (WKD3Lists2)

    Get PDF
    WKD3Lists2 created lists of regionally relevant commercial fish and shellfish species (and higher order taxa) for the use of Article 8 reporting by EU member states under Descriptor 3 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The regional taxa lists were based on landings data from the Fisheries Dependent Information data base (FDI) provided by EU member states and compiled by the Joint Research Centre (JRC). The taxonomy of landings data was consolidated by regional experts and the consolidated data were combined to obtain absolute and proportional landing weights and values for each (sub)re-gion, which were used to apply dual (weight and vale) selection thresholds to compile (sub)re-gional D3-taxa-lists. Regional D3-taxa-lists were produced for two MSFD regions (Baltic Sea & Black Sea) and eight MSFD subregions: The Greater North Sea, Celtic Seas, the Bay of Biscay and Iberian Coast, Mac-aronesia, Western Mediterranean, the Ionian Sea & Central Mediterranean, the Adriatic Sea and the Aegean-Levantine Sea. To exclude taxa with very low landing weights or value from the final lists, two types of thresh-olds (cumulative and minimum) with differing cut-off values were evaluated (90%, 95%, 98% and 99% for cumulative and 0.1% and 1% for minimum thresholds). Depending on the cut-off value, the number of taxa included varied substantially and in most (sub)regions the application of thresholds reduced the initial number of taxa by more than 50%. WKD3Lists2 did not recommend any threshold type or cut-off value to be applied generically in all (sub)regions, but identified trade-offs between inclusiveness and parsimony of relevant con-tent i.e. higher cut-off values will lead to longer lists including many taxa with relatively low landings weights/values. In some (sub)regions, thresholds with lower cut-off values (90% to 95%) were considered feasible by regional experts (Mediterranean subregions, Bay of Biscay and Iberian Coast, Macaronesia), whereas in other MSFD (sub)regions cut-off values in the range of 98-99% were considered as appropriate (Baltic Sea, Greater North Sea, Celtic Seas). The regional D3-taxa lists by WKD3Lists2 were created without considering the availability of data or assessments i.e. many species are included, for which no assessment information is avail-able. WKD3Lists2 decided on this approach because a representative selection of commercially targeted taxa was considered to indicate knowledge and data gaps in current data collection and assessment schemes. Regional species lists shall be used by EU member states for the national reporting of D3. Stocks and species from the regional lists shall be considered by member states, and additional stocks/species can be added where appropriate (e.g. those stocks/species of national or local of importance that do not appear on the regional lists). x WKD3Lists2 discussed and compiled recommendations on how Member States can complement the regional lists of D3-taxa. A key recommendation is to maintain taxa reported in 2018 under D3, even if they are not part of the regional D3-taxa list for 2024. Wherever possible, Member States should report on stock level. WKD3Lists2 also discussed linkages between D1 and D3-reporting of commercial taxa.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    An interferon-inducible neutrophil-driven blood transcriptional signature in human tuberculosis

    Get PDF
    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and efforts to control TB are hampered by difficulties with diagnosis, prevention and treatment 1,2. Most people infected with M. tuberculosis remain asymptomatic, termed latent TB, with a 10% lifetime risk of developing active TB disease, but current tests cannot identify which individuals will develop disease 3. The immune response to M. tuberculosis is complex and incompletely characterized, hindering development of new diagnostics, therapies and vaccines 4,5. We identified a whole blood 393 transcript signature for active TB in intermediate and high burden settings, correlating with radiological extent of disease and reverting to that of healthy controls following treatment. A subset of latent TB patients had signatures similar to those in active TB patients. We also identified a specific 86-transcript signature that discriminated active TB from other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Modular and pathway analysis revealed that the TB signature was dominated by a neutrophil-driven interferon (IFN)-inducible gene profile, consisting of both IFN-γ and Type I IFNαβ signalling. Comparison with transcriptional signatures in purified cells and flow cytometric analysis, suggest that this TB signature reflects both changes in cellular composition and altered gene expression. Although an IFN signature was also observed in whole blood of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), their complete modular signature differed from TB with increased abundance of plasma cell transcripts. Our studies demonstrate a hitherto under-appreciated role of Type I IFNαβ signalling in TB pathogenesis, which has implications for vaccine and therapeutic development. Our study also provides a broad range of transcriptional biomarkers with potential as diagnostic and prognostic tools to combat the TB epidemic

    Is biotechnology (more) acceptable when it enables a reduction in phytosanitary treatments? A European comparison of the acceptability of transgenesis and cisgenesis

    Get PDF
    Reduced pesticide use is one of the reasons given by Europeans for accepting new genetic engineering techniques. According to the advocates of these techniques, consumers are likely to embrace the application of cisgenesis to apple trees. In order to verify the acceptability of these techniques, we estimate a Bayesian multilevel structural equation model, which takes into account the multidimensional nature of acceptability and individual, national, and European effects, using data from the Eurobarometer 2010 73.1 on science. The results underline the persistence of clear differences between European countries and whilst showing considerable defiance, a relatively wider acceptability of vertical gene transfer as a means of reducing phytosanitary treatments, compared to horizontal transfer

    Assessing the human immune system through blood transcriptomics

    Get PDF
    Blood is the pipeline of the immune system. Assessing changes in transcript abundance in blood on a genome-wide scale affords a comprehensive view of the status of the immune system in health and disease. This review summarizes the work that has used this approach to identify therapeutic targets and biomarker signatures in the field of autoimmunity and infectious disease. Recent technological and methodological advances that will carry the blood transcriptome research field forward are also discussed
    corecore