905 research outputs found

    Equilibrium Location and Economic Welfare in Delivered Pricing Oligopoly

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    We investigate the equilibrium location pattern and welfare implication in delivered pricing model (or spatial price discrimination model) with a linear city. First, we extend a delivered pricing duopoly with Bertrand competition of Hamilton et al. (1989) to an n-firm model and explicitly solve the equilibrium location pattern. Next, we investigate welfare implication of the equilibrium location pattern. Given the Bertrand competition in the second stage we consider the welfare effect of relocations from the equilibrium locations. The equilibrium distance between firms is smaller than in the first best case, while it is too large from the second best viewpoint.

    Equilibria for circular spatial Cournot markets

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    This paper investigates a location-quantity model in a circular city. Pal (1998) investigates a duopoly model and finds that an equidistant location pattern appears in equilibrium. Matsushima (2001a) investigates an n-firm oligopoly model and shows that, if the number of firms is even, another equilibrium exists where half of the firms agglomerate at one point and the other firms agglomerate at the opposite point. We find that there exist many other equilibrium patterns that include the above two patterns as special cases.circular city

    Mixed oligopoly and spatial agglomeration in quasi-linear city

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    We apply a spatial model that includes both circular-city and linear-city models as special cases to the analysis of location-quantity model in mixed oligopoly. We find that the equilibrium pattern continuously moves from that of the circular-city to that of the linear-city and that the linear-city result is more likely in our setting as the equilibrium location.Linear-city, Circular-city, Location-quantity, Mixed oligopoly

    Product Differentiation and Entry Timing in a Continuous Time Spatial Competition Model

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    N-(Fluoren-9-ylmethoxy­carbon­yl)-l-aspartic acid 4-tert-butyl ester

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    The bond distances and bond angles of the title compound, C23H25NO6, are consistent with values typically found for fluoren-9-ylmethoxy­carbonyl-protected amino acids. The conformations of the backbone and the side chain are slightly different from those of l-aspartic acid. The crystal structure exhibits two inter­molecular hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional sheet structure parallel to the ab plane

    MASTABA: Family Digital Shrine

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    Metal-phthalocyanines (MPc) has high chemical stability and high catalytic activities in electrochemical reactions such as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), CO2 reduction, and so on. It has becoming known that the catalytic activity of MPc should depend on the crystal structures, i.e., alfa-type MPc gives higher activity than other phases. In this study, the alfa-structure controlled MPcs could successfully be prepared by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method on gas diffusion type carbon electrode (GDE) as an electrocatalyst. Double layered MPcs electrocatalyst prepared by EPD also gave high performance for ORR. MPc (M: Li, Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, Sn, Pb) was dissolved in dichloromethane solution with trifluoroacetic acid was used for EPD method at room temperature. GDE and Pt counter electrode were used EPD (DC: +40 - +100V, 1-10min). Crystal structures of the MPcs were investigated by XRD, UV-vis, SEM, FT-IR, etc. ORR properties were evaluated in a half-cell in 1M H2SO4 at 70°C with a potentiostat using reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and Pt plate as reference and counter electrodes, respectively. Most of the alfa-phase MPcs could be prepared by the EPD on GDEs using dichloromethane solution containing trifluoroacetic acid. However, MPcs (M=Li, Mg) couldn’t prepared by the same condition. Alfa-phase MPc doped GDE showed higher ORR activity than that of GDE loaded with beta-MPc. In the cathodic performance at 0.4 V vs. RHE (I0.4) and open circuit potential (Eocp) at 70ºC of gas-diffusion electrodes loaded with various alfa-MPc catalysts deposited by EPD method. The GDEs loaded with alfa-MPcs showed various open circuit potentials, depending on the central metal (M) of alfa-MPc. GDE loaded with alfa-FePc showed the highest open circuit potential among the alfa-MPcs. This indicates that alfa-FePc could produce effect on density of adsorbed oxygen in the catalytic layer in the GDE. Moreover alfa-FePc based electrode showed high activity even at lower overpotential range, in spite of its low activity at higher overpotential range. The change in the Tafel slops was observed which indicates the change in the mechanism of ORR. Tafel slope of -43mV/decade at lower overpotential range shows the oxygen reduction reaction route with the formation of peroxo species in which the hydrogenation desorption reaction is rapid. While, the higher overpotential the Tafel slope of -222mV/decade might show the route which the peroxo species are not formed, like the H2O2 formation route. On the other hand, the Tafel slope of the GDE loaded with alfa-CoPc was not changed in the wide overpotential range. Also, the alfa-CoPc could keep the catalytic activity for several cycles of measurements of cathodic polarization curves, while that of alfa-FePc changed in the cycles. The decrease in ORR cycle for alfa-FePc seems to be come from the large strength of oxygen adsorption of alfa-FePc. On the other hand, CoPc/FePc double layered electrocatalyst prepared by the EPD gave more higher performance for ORR and stability. Acknowledgment: This work was partially supported by the Grant from JST ACT-C and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25410240

    Shear Box Tests with Measurement of Suction on Undisturbed Samples of Daisen Kurayoshi Pumice

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    Shear strength characteristics of a volcanic cohesive soil, Daisen Kurayoshi Pumice (DKP), which is a representative problematic soil in Japan, are complicated because of its partial saturation and inhomogeneous nature. A direct shear box testing machine was newly developed to measure the suction in both stages of consolidation and shearing. Direct shear tests were carried out under a normal stress lower than the consolidation yield stress pc. The results showed that: (1) shear strengths were different between specimens although they were tested under a particular normal stress; (2) however, the difference was rationally explained by using the variables of the suction and the normal stress measured below the base of the shear box that is fixed in the vertical direction; and (3) the relationship between the shear strength and the suction was non-linear