8 research outputs found

    Phenotypes of the <i>Fgsch9</i> mutants in growth, conidiation, pathogenesis, and DON production.

    No full text
    a<p>Daily extension in colony radius on PDA plates.</p>b<p>Conidiation in CMC cultures incubated at 25°C for 5 days.</p>c<p>Diseased spikelets per wheat head at 14 dpi.</p>d<p>DON production in infected wheat kernels harvested from inoculated wheat heads 14 dpi.</p><p><b>*</b>Mean and standard deviation were calculated from four independent replicates. Data were analyzed with the protected Fisher’s Least Significant Difference (LSD) test. Different letters were used to mark statistically significant difference (P = 0.05).</p

    Colony morphology, hyphal growth and conidia morphology.

    No full text
    <p><b>A.</b> Colony morphology of the wild type PH-1, Δ<i>Fgsch9</i> mutant SD1, and Δ<i>Fgsch9</i>/<i>SCH9</i> transformant N9 cultures grown on PDA. Photographs were taken after incubation for 3 days. <b>B.</b> Hyphae of PH-1, SD1, and N9 cultured on 1/2 CM slab agar for 36 h. <b>C.</b> Conidia morphology of PH-1, N9, and SD1. Bar = 10 µm.</p

    Subcellular localization of FgSch9-GFP fusion proteins.

    No full text
    <p>Freshly harvested conidia (<b>A</b>), 12 h germlings (<b>B</b>), and ascospores (<b>C</b>) of the Δ<i>Fgsch9</i>/<i>FgSCH9</i>-GFP transformant N9 were examined by phase contrast (DIC) or epifluorescence (GFP) microscopy. GFP signals were present mainly in the cytoplasm. Bar = 10 µm.</p

    Phenotypes of the Δ<i>Mosch9</i> mutant in conidia, appressoria, and pathogenesis.

    No full text
    <p><b>A.</b> Appressorium formation assays with conidia of the wild type Ku80 and the Δ<i>Mosch9</i> mutant on hydrophobic plastic coverslips. Typical samples were photographed after incubation at 25°C for 24 h. <b>B.</b> Rice leaves wound-inoculated with Ku80 and the Δ<i>Mosch9</i> mutant. Lesion formation was observed 7 dpi.</p

    New hyphal growth inside dead compartments in the Δ<i>Fgsch9</i> mutant.

    No full text
    <p>Hyphae of the Δ<i>Fgsch9</i> mutant SD1 grown on YEPD or PDA slab agars were examined by phase contrast microscopy. Bar = 10 µm.</p

    Increased tolerance to elevated temperatures in germ tubes of the Δ<i>Fgsch9</i> mutant.

    No full text
    <p>Conidia of the wild type PH-1, Δ<i>Fgsch9</i> mutant SD1, and Δ<i>Fgsch9</i>/<i>SCH9</i> transformant N9 were inoculate in YEPD at 25°C (<b>A</b>) and 30°C (<b>B</b>). Photographs were taken after incubation for 18 h. Bar = 10 µm.</p

    Infection assays with flowering wheat heads and corn silks.

    No full text
    <p><b>A.</b> Flowering wheat heads were drop-inoculated with conidia from the wild type PH-1, Δ<i>Fgsch9</i> mutant SD1, and complemented strain N9. Typical wheat heads were photographed 14 dpi. The inoculated kernel was marked with a black dot. <b>B.</b> Corn silks were inoculated with culture blocks of the same set of strains and incubated at 25°C. Symptoms were observed at 5 dpi.</p

    Table_1.xlsx

    No full text
    <p>Trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, are not only important for plant infection but are also harmful to human and animal health. Trichothecene targets the ribosomal protein Rpl3 that is conserved in eukaryotes. Hence, a self-defense mechanism must exist in DON-producing fungi. It is reported that TRI (trichothecene biosynthesis) 101 and TRI12 are two genes responsible for self-defense against trichothecene toxins in Fusarium. In this study, however, we found that simultaneous disruption of TRI101 and TRI12 has no obvious influence on DON resistance upon exogenous DON treatment in F. graminearum, suggesting that other mechanisms may be involved in self-defense. By using RNA-seq, we identified 253 genes specifically induced in DON-treated cultures compared with samples from cultures treated or untreated with cycloheximide, a commonly used inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis. We found that transporter genes are significantly enriched in this group of DON-induced genes. Of those genes, 15 encode major facilitator superfamily transporters likely involved in mycotoxin efflux. Significantly, we found that genes involved in the metabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a known inducer of DON production in F. graminearum, are significantly enriched among the DON-induced genes. The GABA biosynthesis gene PROLINE UTILIZATION 2-2 (PUT2-2) is downregulated, while GABA degradation genes are upregulated at least twofold upon treatment with DON, resulting in decreased levels of GABA. Taken together, our results suggest that transporters influencing DON efflux are important for self-defense and that GABA mediates the balance of DON production and self-defense in F. graminearum.</p
    corecore