39 research outputs found

    An HMM-based Comparative Genomic Framework for Detecting Introgression in Eukaryotes

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    One outcome of interspecific hybridization and subsequent effects of evolutionary forces is introgression, which is the integration of genetic material from one species into the genome of an individual in another species. The evolution of several groups of eukaryotic species has involved hybridization, and cases of adaptation through introgression have been already established. In this work, we report on a new comparative genomic framework for detecting introgression in genomes, called PhyloNet-HMM, which combines phylogenetic networks, that capture reticulate evolutionary relationships among genomes, with hidden Markov models (HMMs), that capture dependencies within genomes. A novel aspect of our work is that it also accounts for incomplete lineage sorting and dependence across loci. Application of our model to variation data from chromosome 7 in the mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) genome detects a recently reported adaptive introgression event involving the rodent poison resistance gene Vkorc1, in addition to other newly detected introgression regions. Based on our analysis, it is estimated that about 12% of all sites withinchromosome 7 are of introgressive origin (these cover about 18 Mbp of chromosome 7, and over 300 genes). Further, our model detects no introgression in two negative control data sets. Our work provides a powerful framework for systematic analysis of introgression while simultaneously accounting for dependence across sites, point mutations, recombination, and ancestral polymorphism

    Indirect damage of urban flooding:Investigation of flood-induced traffic congestion using dynamic modeling

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    In many countries, industrialization has led to rapid urbanization. Increased frequency of urban flooding is one consequence of the expansion of urban areas which can seriously affect the productivity and livelihoods of urban residents. Therefore, it is of vital importance to study the effects of rainfall and urban flooding on traffic congestion and driver behavior. In this study, a comprehensive method to analyze the influence of urban flooding on traffic congestion was developed. First, a flood simulation was conducted to predict the spatiotemporal distribution of flooding based on Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and TELAMAC-2D. Second, an agent-based model (ABM) was used to simulate driver behavior during a period of urban flooding, and a car-following model was established. Finally, in order to study the mechanisms behind how urban flooding affects traffic congestion, the impact of flooding on urban traffic was investigated based on a case study of the urban area of Lishui, China, covering an area of 4.4 km2. It was found that for most events, two-hour rainfall has a certain impact on traffic congestion over a five-hour period, with the greatest impact during the hour following the cessation of the rain. Furthermore, the effects of rainfall with 10- and 20-year return periods were found to be similar and small, whereas the effects with a 50-year return period were obvious. Based on a combined analysis of hydrology and transportation, the proposed methods and conclusions could help to reduce traffic congestion during flood seasons, to facilitate early warning and risk management of urban flooding, and to assist users in making informed decisions regarding travel

    Risk assessment of the Xigou debris flow in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

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    On June 18, 2018, under the influence of heavy rainfall, a debris flow disaster broke out in Xigou village of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in Chongqing, causing some residential houses to be buried along with great economic losses. The on-site investigation found many loose solid material sources in the debris flow gully. Under the conditions of heavy rainfall, debris flows are prone to occur again, which would seriously threaten the lives and property of nearby residents. In this paper, taking the Xigou debris flow as a research case, numerical simulation by rapid mass movements simulation (RAMMS) is used to invert the movement process of the 2018 debris flow event; the dynamic calculation parameters of the Xigou debris flow event are obtained; a quantitative hazard prediction of debris flows with different recurrence intervals (30, 50, and 100 years) is carried out in the study area; and risk assessment is conducted based on the vulnerability characteristics of the disaster-bearing bodies in the study area. The results show that the maximum accumulation thickness of debris flow in the 30-year, 50-year, and 100-year recurrence intervals is 6.54 m, 10.18 m, and 10.00 m, respectively, and the debris flow in the 100-year recurrence interval has the widest influence range and greatest hazard. The low-, medium-, and high-risk areas account for 75%, 23%, and 2%, respectively. The high-risk area mainly includes some buildings near the #1 and #2 gullies. This study provides support for the prevention and control of potential debris flow disasters in Xigou village and a scientific basis for disaster prevention and mitigation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    Studio di fattibilità di braccio robotico R-P

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    Con questo elaborato si è eseguito lo studio di fattibilità di un banco didattico per il Corso di Laurea magistrale in Ingegneria meccanica - indirizzo Meccanica per l’automazione. Le specifiche per la progettazione del banco sono state dettate dall’esigenza di realizzare un meccanismo a più gradi di libertà controllato tramite opportuna scheda elettronica con l’obiettivo di avere un modello sperimentale sul quale approfondire alcuni aspetti di modellazione cinematica e dinamica, nonchè testare differenti strategie di controllo. Si è quindi pensato ad un braccio robotico a due gradi di libertà mobile in un piano verticale, controllato attraverso l’attuazione di una coppia rotoidale e di una prismatica, per la manipolazione di oggetti afferrati per mezzo di una ventosa ad attuazione pneumatica. Definita in prima istanza l’architettura di massima del sistema, grazie a opportuni calcoli di dimensionamento sono stati effettuati la scelta dei componenti commerciali ed il progetto delle parti da costruire. Si è quindi proposto un modello CAD in ambiente SolidWorks che ha permesso, fra l’altro, di definire le proprietà inerziali dei membri mobili. Queste ultime sono state sfruttate per eseguire simulazioni cinetostatiche con il software multibody Adams. Grazie ai risultati così ottenuti, è stato possibile eseguire il dimensionamento degli attuatori (motori brushless e relative trasmissioni) e la conseguente scelta a catalogo. Una volta selezionati gli azionamenti e gli altri componenti commerciali, si sono definiti i disegni costruttivi dei componenti da realizzare ad hoc ed è stata avviata la fase di approvvigionamento del materiale. Un possibile sviluppo del banco prova prevede l’introduzione di un’ulteriore coppia rotoidale attuata (da interporre con asse verticale fra il telaio e l’attuale primo membro), per ottenere un manipolatore dotato di moto spaziale

    Reversible Data Hiding Algorithm in Fully Homomorphic Encrypted Domain

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    This paper proposes a reversible data hiding scheme by exploiting the DGHV fully homomorphic encryption, and analyzes the feasibility of the scheme for data hiding from the perspective of information entropy. In the proposed algorithm, additional data can be embedded directly into a DGHV fully homomorphic encrypted image without any preprocessing. On the sending side, by using two encrypted pixels as a group, a data hider can get the difference of two pixels in a group. Additional data can be embedded into the encrypted image by shifting the histogram of the differences with the fully homomorphic property. On the receiver side, a legal user can extract the additional data by getting the difference histogram, and the original image can be restored by using modular arithmetic. Besides, the additional data can be extracted after decryption while the original image can be restored. Compared with the previous two typical algorithms, the proposed scheme can effectively avoid preprocessing operations before encryption and can successfully embed and extract additional data in the encrypted domain. The extensive testing results on the standard images have certified the effectiveness of the proposed scheme

    Performance Analysis and Improvement of Online Fountain Codes

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    Investigation of Model Uncertainty in Rainfall-Induced Landslide Prediction under Changing Climate Conditions

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    Climate change can exacerbate the occurrence of extreme precipitation events, thereby affecting both the frequency and intensity of rainfall-induced landslides. It is important to study the threat of rainfall-induced landslides under future climate conditions for the formulation of disaster prevention and mitigation policies. Due to the complexity of the climate system, there is great uncertainty in the climate variables simulated by a global climate model (GCM), which will be further propagated in landslide prediction. In this study, we investigate the spatial and temporal trends of future landslide hazards in China under climate change, using data from a multi-model ensemble of GCMs based on two scenarios, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The uncertainty characteristics are then estimated based on signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and the ratio of agreement in sign (RAS). The results show that the uncertainty of landslide prediction is mainly dominated by the GCM ensemble and the RCP scenario settings. Spatially, the uncertainty of landslide prediction is high in the western areas of China and low in the eastern areas of China. Temporally, the uncertainty of landslide prediction is evolving, with characteristics of high uncertainty in the near future and characteristics of low uncertainty in the distant future. The annual average SNRs in the 21st century are 0.44 and 0.50 in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, and the RAS of landslide prediction in Southeastern China is only 50–60%. This indicates that more than half of the patterns show trends that are opposite to those of the ensemble, suggesting that their landslide change trends are not universally recognized in the pattern ensemble. Considering the uncertainty of climate change in landslide prediction can enable studies to provide a more comprehensive picture of the possible range of future landslide changes, effectively improving the reliability of landslide hazard prediction and disaster prevention

    Design and Analysis of Electromagnetic Linear Actuation-Energy-Reclaiming Device Applied to a New-Type Energy-Reclaiming Suspension

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    In order to meet the increasing demand for high-performance and high-efficiency vehicles, this paper proposes a novel electromagnetic linear energy-reclaiming suspension technology based on the McPherson independent suspension, and analyzes its core component—ELA-ERD (Electromagnetic Linear Actuation Energy-Reclaiming Device). ELA-ERD, taking a shock absorber piston rod as the inner yoke, has a compact structure and reasonable layout by integrating the structural features of the suspension. In this paper, the design process of ELA-ERD is elaborated in detail. Aiming at the problem of over-saturation of the inner yoke magnetic density, this paper proposes a method to optimize the magnetic circuit by increasing the size of the inner yoke within the effective working area of the moving coil, thus effectively improving the electromagnetic characteristics of ELA-ERD. Moreover, the effect and potential of energy reclaiming on ELA-ERD were studied by using finite element software. The study on the energy-reclaiming law of ELA-ERD was carried out from the perspective of the changes in vibration frequency and amplitude. In addition, the internal relationship between the energy-reclaiming voltage and the vibration velocity was revealed in this work, and the energy-reclaiming voltage coefficient Ke was defined. Through calculation of a large amount of model data, the Ke value applicable to the designed ELA-ERD in this paper was approximately set to 4.5. This study lays an important theoretical foundation for the follow-up studies
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