177 research outputs found

    Stellar (n,gamma) cross sections of p-process isotopes PartI: 102Pd, 120Te, 130,132Ba,and 156Dy

    Full text link
    We have investigated the (n,gamma) cross sections of p-process isotopes with the activation technique. The measurements were carried out at the Karlsruhe Van de Graaff accelerator using the 7Li(p,n)7Be source for simulating a Maxwellian neutron distribution of kT = 25 keV. Stellar cross section measurements are reported for the light p-process isotopes 102Pd, 120Te, 130,132Ba, and 156Dy. In a following paper the cross sections of 168Yb, 180W, 184Os, 190Pt, and 196Hg will be discussed. The data are extrapolated to p-process energies by including information from evaluated nuclear data libraries. The results are compared to standard Hauser-Feshbach models frequently used in astrophysics.Comment: 13 pages, 4 figure

    Scattering of positrons and electrons by alkali atoms

    Get PDF
    Absolute total scattering cross sections (Q sub T's) were measured for positrons and electrons colliding with sodium, potassium, and rubidium in the 1 to 102 eV range, using the same apparatus and experimental approach (a beam transmission technique) for both projectiles. The present results for positron-sodium and -rubidium collisions represent the first Q sub T measurements reported for these collision systems. Features which distinguish the present comparisons between positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's from those for other atoms and molecules (room-temperature gases) which have been used as targets for positrons and electrons are the proximity of the corresponding positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's over the entire energy range of overlap, with an indication of a merging or near-merging of the corresponding positron and electron Q sub T's near (and above) the relatively low energy of about 40 eV, and a general tendency for the positron-alkali atom Q sub T's to be higher than the corresponding electron values as the projectile energy is decreased below about 40 eV

    Neutron capture cross section of 139 La

    Get PDF
    The neutron capture cross section of 139La{}^{139}\mathrm{La} has been measured relative to that of 197Au{}^{197}\mathrm{Au} by means of the activation method. The sample was irradiated in a quasistellar neutron spectrum for kT=25keVkT=25\mathrm{keV} generated via the 7Li(p,n)7Be{}^{7}\mathrm{Li}{(p,n)}^{7}\mathrm{Be} reaction with the proton energy adjusted 30 keV above the threshold. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for energies kT=5100keV.kT=5--100\mathrm{keV}. The new value for kT=30keVkT=30\mathrm{keV} is found to be 31.6\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}0.8\mathrm{mb}, 18% lower and considerably less uncertain than the previously recommended value of 38.4\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}2.7\mathrm{mb}. With these results the s- and r-process components could be more accurately determined, making lanthanum a reliable s- and r-process indicator in stellar spectroscopy

    Approaching the Gamow Window with Stored Ions : Direct Measurement of Xe 124 (p,γ) in the ESR Storage Ring

    Get PDF
    © 2019 American Physical Society. All rights reserved.We report the first measurement of low-energy proton-capture cross sections of Xe124 in a heavy-ion storage ring. Xe12454+ ions of five different beam energies between 5.5 and 8 AMeV were stored to collide with a windowless hydrogen target. The Cs125 reaction products were directly detected. The interaction energies are located on the high energy tail of the Gamow window for hot, explosive scenarios such as supernovae and x-ray binaries. The results serve as an important test of predicted astrophysical reaction rates in this mass range. Good agreement in the prediction of the astrophysically important proton width at low energy is found, with only a 30% difference between measurement and theory. Larger deviations are found above the neutron emission threshold, where also neutron and γ widths significantly impact the cross sections. The newly established experimental method is a very powerful tool to investigate nuclear reactions on rare ion beams at low center-of-mass energies.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    The effects of pause software on the temporal characteristics of computer use.

    Get PDF
    The study investigated the natural work-pause pattern of computer users and the possible effects of imposing pause regimes on this pattern. Hereto, the precise timing of computer events was recorded across a large number of days. It was found that the distribution of the pause durations was extremely skewed and that pauses with twice the duration are twice less likely to occur. The effects of imposing pause regimes were studied by performing a simulation of commercially available pause software. It was found that depending on the duration of the introduced pause, the software added 25-57% of the pauses taken naturally. Analysis of the timing of the introduced pauses revealed that a large number of spontaneous pauses were taken close to the inserted pause. Considering the disappointing results of studies investigating the effects of introducing (active) pauses during computer work, this study has cast doubt on the usefulness of introducing short duration pauses

    BRUSLIB and NETGEN: the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library and nuclear network generator for astrophysics

    Full text link
    Nuclear reaction rates are quantities of fundamental importance in astrophysics. Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decades to measure or calculate them. The present paper presents for the first time a detailed description of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library BRUSLIB and of the nuclear network generator NETGEN so as to make these nuclear data packages easily accessible to astrophysicists for a large variety of applications. BRUSLIB is made of two parts. The first one contains the 1999 NACRE compilation based on experimental data for 86 reactions with (mainly) stable targets up to Si. The second part of BRUSLIB concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions calculated within a statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation, which limits the reliability of the rates to reactions producing compound nuclei with a high enough level density. These calculations make use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities entering the rate calculations. The use of such models is utterly important, and makes the BRUSLIB rate library unique. A description of the Nuclear Network Generator NETGEN that complements the BRUSLIB package is also presented. NETGEN is a tool to generate nuclear reaction rates for temperature grids specified by the user. The information it provides can be used for a large variety of applications, including Big Bang nucleosynthesis, the energy generation and nucleosynthesis associated with the non-explosive and explosive hydrogen to silicon burning stages, or the synthesis of the heavy nuclides through the s-, alpha- and r-, rp- or p-processes.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figures; Astronomy & Astrophysics, in press; also available at http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/Html/ps.htm

    Using classification and regression tree modelling to investigate response shift patterns in dentine hypersensitivity

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Dentine hypersensitivity (DH) affects people's quality of life (QoL). However changes in the internal meaning of QoL, known as Response shift (RS) may undermine longitudinal assessment of QoL. This study aimed to describe patterns of RS in people with DH using Classification and Regression Trees (CRT) and to explore the convergent validity of CRT with the then-test and ideals approaches. METHODS: Data from an 8-week clinical trial of mouthwashes for dentine hypersensitivity (n = 75) using the Dentine Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (DHEQ) as the outcome measure, were analysed. CRT was used to examine 8-week changes in DHEQ total score as a dependent variable with clinical status for DH and each DHEQ subscale score (restrictions, coping, social, emotional and identity) as independent variables. Recalibration was inferred when the clinical change was not consistent with the DHEQ change score using a minimally important difference for DHEQ of 22 points. Reprioritization was inferred by changes in the relative importance of each subscale to the model over time. RESULTS: Overall, 50.7% of participants experienced a clinical improvement in their DH after treatment and 22.7% experienced an important improvement in their quality of life. Thirty-six per cent shifted their internal standards downward and 14.7% upwards, suggesting recalibration. Reprioritization occurred over time among the social and emotional impacts of DH. CONCLUSIONS: CRT was a useful method to reveal both, the types and nature of RS in people with a mild health condition and demonstrated convergent validity with design based approaches to detect RS
    corecore