737 research outputs found

    Relativistic Effects on the Appearance of a Clothed Black Hole

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    For an accretion disk around a black hole, the strong relativistic effects affect every aspect of the radiation from the disk, including its spectrum, light-curve, and image. This work investigates in detail how the images of a thin disk around a black hole will be distorted, and what the observer will see from different viewing angles and in different energy bands.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures. Based on the poster presented at the Sixth Pacific Rim Conference on Stellar Astrophysics (Xi'an, China, July 11-17, 2002). Color versions of figures are given separatel

    Complementarity Endures: No Firewall for an Infalling Observer

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    We argue that the complementarity picture, as interpreted as a reference frame change represented in quantum gravitational Hilbert space, does not suffer from the "firewall paradox" recently discussed by Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski, and Sully. A quantum state described by a distant observer evolves unitarily, with the evolution law well approximated by semi-classical field equations in the region away from the (stretched) horizon. And yet, a classical infalling observer does not see a violation of the equivalence principle, and thus a firewall, at the horizon. The resolution of the paradox lies in careful considerations on how a (semi-)classical world arises in unitary quantum mechanics describing the whole universe/multiverse.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure; clarifications and minor revisions; v3: a small calculation added for clarification; v4: some corrections, conclusion unchange

    Quantum Cosmology for the General Bianchi Type II, VI(Class A) and VII(Class A) vacuum geometries

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    The canonical quantization of the most general minisuperspace actions --i.e. with all six scale factor as well as the lapse function and the shift vector present-- describing the vacuum type II, VI and VII geometries, is considered. The reduction to the corresponding physical degrees of freedom is achieved through the usage of the linear constraints as well as the quantum version of the entire set of classical integrals of motion.Comment: 23 pages, LaTeX2e, No figure

    A note on wavemap-tensor cosmologies

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    We examine theories of gravity which include finitely many coupled scalar fields with arbitrary couplings to the curvature (wavemaps). We show that the most general scalar-tensor σ\sigma-model action is conformally equivalent to general relativity with a minimally coupled wavemap with a particular target metric. Inflation on the source manifold is then shown to occur in a novel way due to the combined effect of arbitrary curvature couplings and wavemap self-interactions. A new interpretation of the conformal equivalence theorem proved for such `wavemap-tensor' theories through brane-bulk dynamics is also discussed.Comment: 8 pages, LaTeX, to appear in the Proceedings of the 2nd Hellenic Cosmology Workshop, National Observatory of Athens, April 21-22, 2001, (Kluwer 2001

    Large entropy production inside black holes: a simple model

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    Particles dropped into a rotating black hole can collide near the inner horizon with enormous energies. The entropy produced by these collisions can be several times larger than the increase in the horizon entropy due to the addition of the particles. In this paper entropy is produced by releasing large numbers of neutrons near the outer horizon of a rotating black hole such that they collide near the inner horizon at energies similar to those achieved at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The increase in horizon entropy is approximately 80 per dropped neutron pair, while the entropy produced in the collisions is 160 per neutron pair. The collision entropy is produced inside the horizon, so this excess entropy production does not violate Bousso's bound limiting the entropy that can go through the black hole's horizon. The generalized laws of black hole thermodynamics are obeyed. No individual observer inside the black hole sees a violation of the second law of thermodynamicsComment: 10 page

    Black Hole Emission in String Theory and the String Phase of Black Holes

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    String theory properly describes black-hole evaporation. The quantum string emission by Black Holes is computed. The black-hole temperature is the Hawking temperature in the semiclassical quantum field theory (QFT) regime and becomes the intrinsic string temperature, T_s, in the quantum (last stage) string regime. The QFT-Hawking temperature T_H is upper bounded by the string temperature T_S. The black hole emission spectrum is an incomplete gamma function of (T_H - T_S). For T_H << T_S, it yields the QFT-Hawking emission. For T_H \to T_S, it shows highly massive string states dominate the emission and undergo a typical string phase transition to a microscopic `minimal' black hole of mass M_{\min} or radius r_{\min} (inversely proportional to T_S) and string temperature T_S. The string back reaction effect (selfconsistent black hole solution of the semiclassical Einstein equations) is computed. Both, the QFT and string black hole regimes are well defined and bounded.The string `minimal' black hole has a life time tau_{min} simeq (k_B c)/(G hbar [T_S]^3). The semiclassical QFT black hole (of mass M and temperature T_H) and the string black hole (of mass M_{min} and temperature T_S) are mapped one into another by a `Dual' transform which links classical/QFT and quantum string regimes.Comment: LaTex, 22 pages, Lectures delivered at the Chalonge School, Nato ASI: Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: Theory and Observations. To appear in the Proceedings, Editors H. J. de Vega, I. Khalatnikov, N. Sanchez. (Kluwer Pub

    The information paradox: conflicts and resolutions

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    Many relativists have been long convinced that black hole evaporation leads to information loss or remnants. String theorists have however not been too worried about the issue, largely due to a belief that the Hawking argument for information loss is flawed in its details. A recently derived inequality shows that the Hawking argument for black holes with horizon can in fact be made rigorous. What happens instead is that in string theory black hole microstates have no horizons. Thus the evolution of radiation quanta with E ~ kT is modified by order unity at the horizon, and we resolve the information paradox. We discuss how it is still possible for E >> kT objects to see an approximate black hole like geometry. We also note some possible implications of this physics for the early Universe.Comment: 26 pages, 8 figures, Latex; (Expanded version of) proceedings for Lepton-Photon 201

    Quantum Back Reaction to asymptotically AdS Black Holes

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    We analyze the effects of the back reaction due to a conformal field theory (CFT) on a black hole spacetime with negative cosmological constant. We study the geometry numerically obtained by taking into account the energy momentum tensor of CFT approximated by a radiation fluid. We find a sequence of configurations without a horizon in thermal equilibrium (CFT stars), followed by a sequence of configurations with a horizon. We discuss the thermodynamic properties of the system and how back reaction effects alter the space-time structure. We also provide an interpretation of the above sequence of solutions in terms of the AdS/CFT correspondence. The dual five-dimensional description is given by the Karch-Randall model, in which a sequence of five-dimensional floating black holes followed by a sequence of brane localized black holes correspond to the above solutions.Comment: 13 pages, 10 figure

    The foundations of statistical mechanics from entanglement: Individual states vs. averages

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    We consider an alternative approach to the foundations of statistical mechanics, in which subjective randomness, ensemble-averaging or time-averaging are not required. Instead, the universe (i.e. the system together with a sufficiently large environment) is in a quantum pure state subject to a global constraint, and thermalisation results from entanglement between system and environment. We formulate and prove a "General Canonical Principle", which states that the system will be thermalised for almost all pure states of the universe, and provide rigorous quantitative bounds using Levy's Lemma.Comment: 12 pages, v3 title changed, v2 minor change

    Hermitian Yang-Mills instantons on resolutions of Calabi-Yau cones

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    We study the construction of Hermitian Yang-Mills instantons over resolutions of Calabi-Yau cones of arbitrary dimension. In particular, in d complex dimensions, we present an infinite family, parametrised by an integer k and a continuous modulus, of SU(d) instantons. A detailed study of their properties, including the computation of the instanton numbers is provided. We also explain how they can be used in the construction of heterotic non-Kahler compactifications.Comment: 20 pages, 1 figure; typos corrected, section 3.1 expande
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