686 research outputs found

### Is the third coefficient of the Jones knot polynomial a quantum state of gravity?

Some time ago it was conjectured that the coefficients of an expansion of the
Jones polynomial in terms of the cosmological constant could provide an
infinite string of knot invariants that are solutions of the vacuum Hamiltonian
constraint of quantum gravity in the loop representation. Here we discuss the
status of this conjecture at third order in the cosmological constant. The
calculation is performed in the extended loop representation, a generalization
of the loop representation. It is shown that the the Hamiltonian does not
annihilate the third coefficient of the Jones polynomal ($J_3$) for general
extended loops. For ordinary loops the result acquires an interesting
geometrical meaning and new possibilities appear for $J_3$ to represent a
quantum state of gravity.Comment: 22 page

### The Extended Loop Representation of Quantum Gravity

A new representation of Quantum Gravity is developed. This formulation is
based on an extension of the group of loops. The enlarged group, that we call
the Extended Loop Group, behaves locally as an infinite dimensional Lie group.
Quantum Gravity can be realized on the state space of extended loop dependent
wavefunctions. The extended representation generalizes the loop representation
and contains this representation as a particular case. The resulting
diffeomorphism and hamiltonian constraints take a very simple form and allow to
apply functional methods and simplify the loop calculus. In particular we show
that the constraints are linear in the momenta. The nondegenerate solutions
known in the loop representation are also solutions of the constraints in the
new representation. The practical calculation advantages allows to find a new
solution to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Moreover, the extended representation
puts in a precise framework some of the regularization problems of the loop
representation. We show that the solutions are generalized knot invariants,
smooth in the extended variables, and any framing is unnecessary.Comment: 27 pages, report IFFC/94-1

### Loop Representations for 2+1 Gravity on a Torus

We study the loop representation of the quantum theory for 2+1 dimensional
general relativity on a manifold, $M = {\cal T}^2 \times {\cal R}$, where
${\cal T}^2$ is the torus, and compare it with the connection representation
for this system. In particular, we look at the loop transform in the part of
the phase space where the holonomies are boosts and study its kernel. This
kernel is dense in the connection representation and the transform is not
continuous with respect to the natural topologies, even in its domain of
definition. Nonetheless, loop representations isomorphic to the connection
representation corresponding to this part of the phase space can still be
constructed if due care is taken. We present this construction but note that
certain ambiguities remain; in particular, functions of loops cannot be
uniquely associated with functions of connections.Comment: 24 journal or 52 preprint pages, revtex, SU-GP-93/3-

### Extended Loops: A New Arena for Nonperturbative Quantum Gravity

We propose a new representation for gauge theories and quantum gravity. It
can be viewed as a generalization of the loop representation. We make use of a
recently introduced extension of the group of loops into a Lie Group. This
extension allows the use of functional methods to solve the constraint
equations. It puts in a precise framework the regularization problems of the
loop representation. It has practical advantages in the search for quantum
states. We present new solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation that reinforce
the conjecture that the Jones Polynomial is a state of nonperturbative quantum
gravity.Comment: 12pp, Revtex, no figures, CGPG-93/12-

### Uniform discretizations: a quantization procedure for totally constrained systems including gravity

We present a new method for the quantization of totally constrained systems
including general relativity. The method consists in constructing discretized
theories that have a well defined and controlled continuum limit. The discrete
theories are constraint-free and can be readily quantized. This provides a
framework where one can introduce a relational notion of time and that
nevertheless approximates in a well defined fashion the theory of interest. The
method is equivalent to the group averaging procedure for many systems where
the latter makes sense and provides a generalization otherwise. In the
continuum limit it can be shown to contain, under certain assumptions, the
``master constraint'' of the ``Phoenix project''. It also provides a
correspondence principle with the classical theory that does not require to
consider the semiclassical limit.Comment: 4 pages, Revte

### Canonical quantum gravity in the Vassiliev invariants arena: II. Constraints, habitats and consistency of the constraint algebra

In a companion paper we introduced a kinematical arena for the discussion of
the constraints of canonical quantum gravity in the spin network representation
based on Vassiliev invariants. In this paper we introduce the Hamiltonian
constraint, extend the space of states to non-diffeomorphism invariant
``habitats'' and check that the off-shell quantum constraint commutator algebra
reproduces the classical Poisson algebra of constraints of general relativity
without anomalies. One can therefore consider the resulting set of constraints
and space of states as a consistent theory of canonical quantum gravity.Comment: 20 Pages, RevTex, many figures included with psfi

### Effect of carrier recombination on ultrafast carrier dynamics in thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3

Transient reflectivity (TR) from thin films (6 - 40 nm thick) of the
topological insulator Bi2Se3 reveal ultrafast carrier dynamics, which suggest
the existence of both radiative and non-radiative recombination between
electrons residing in the upper cone of initially unoccupied high energy Dirac
surface states (SS) and holes residing in the lower cone of occupied low energy
Dirac SS. The modeling of measured TR traces allowed us to conclude that
recombination is induced by the depletion of bulk electrons in films below ~20
nm thick due to the charge captured on the surface defects. We predict that
such recombination processes can be observed using time-resolved
photoluminescence techniques

### Classical Loop Actions of Gauge Theories

Since the first attempts to quantize Gauge Theories and Gravity in the loop
representation, the problem of the determination of the corresponding classical
actions has been raised. Here we propose a general procedure to determine these
actions and we explicitly apply it in the case of electromagnetism. Going to
the lattice we show that the electromagnetic action in terms of loops is
equivalent to the Wilson action, allowing to do Montecarlo calculations in a
gauge invariant way. In the continuum these actions need to be regularized and
they are the natural candidates to describe the theory in a ``confining
phase''.Comment: LaTeX 14 page

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