1,790 research outputs found

    Some exact results on the matter star-product in the half-string formalism

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    We show that the D25 sliver wavefunction, just as the D-instanton sliver, factorizes when expressed in terms of half-string coordinates. We also calculate analytically the star-product of two zero-momentum eigenstates of x^\hat{x} using the vertex in the oscillator basis, thereby showing that the star-product in the matter sector can indeed be seen as multiplication of matrices acting on the space of functionals of half strings. We then use the above results to establish that the matrices ρ1,2\rho_{1,2}, conjectured by Rastelli, Sen and Zwiebach to be left and right projectors on the sliver, are indeed so.Comment: 27 pages; footnote adde

    Star Algebra Spectroscopy

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    The spectrum of the infinite dimensional Neumann matrices M^{11}, M^{12} and M^{21} in the oscillator construction of the three-string vertex determines key properties of the star product and of wedge and sliver states. We study the spectrum of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of these matrices using the derivation K_1 = L_1 + L_{-1} of the star algebra, which defines a simple infinite matrix commuting with the Neumann matrices. By an exact calculation of the spectrum of K_1, and by consideration of an operator generating wedge states, we are able to find analytic expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Neumann matrices and for the spectral density. The spectrum of M^{11} is continuous in the range [-1/3, 0) with degenerate twist even and twist odd eigenvectors for every eigenvalue except for -1/3.Comment: LaTeX, 30 pages, 2 figure

    Non-Douglas-Kazakov phase transition of two-dimensional generalized Yang-Mills theories

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    In two-dimensional Yang-Mills and generalized Yang-Mills theories for large gauge groups, there is a dominant representation determining the thermodynamic limit of the system. This representation is characterized by a density the value of which should everywhere be between zero and one. This density itself is determined through a saddle-point analysis. For some values of the parameter space, this density exceeds one in some places. So one should modify it to obtain an acceptable density. This leads to the well-known Douglas-Kazakov phase transition. In generalized Yang-Mills theories, there are also regions in the parameter space where somewhere this density becomes negative. Here too, one should modify the density so that it remains nonnegative. This leads to another phase transition, different from the Douglas-Kazakov one. Here the general structure of this phase transition is studied, and it is shown that the order of this transition is typically three. Using carefully-chosen parameters, however, it is possible to construct models with phase-transition orders not equal to three. A class of these non-typical models are also studied.Comment: 11 pages, accepted for publication in Eur. Phys. J.

    Siegel Gauge in Vacuum String Field Theory

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    We study the star algebra of ghost sector in vacuum string field theory (VSFT). We show that the star product of two states in the Siegel gauge is BRST exact if we take the BRST charge to be the one found in hep-th/0108150, and the BRST exact states are nil factors in the star algebra. By introducing a new star product defined on the states in the Siegel gauge, the equation of motion of VSFT is characterized as the projection condition with respect to this new product. We also comment on the comma form of string vertex in the ghost sector.Comment: 13 pages, lanlmac; v3: comment adde

    Ghost Kinetic Operator of Vacuum String Field Theory

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    Using the data of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Neumann matrices in the 3-string vertex, we prove analytically that the ghost kinetic operator of vacuum string field theory obtained by Hata and Kawano is equal to the ghost operator inserted at the open string midpoint. We also comment on the values of determinants appearing in the norm of sliver state.Comment: 19 pages, 1 figure, lanlmac; v2: typos correcte

    The Spectrum of the Neumann Matrix with Zero Modes

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    We calculate the spectrum of the matrix M' of Neumann coefficients of the Witten vertex, expressed in the oscillator basis including the zero-mode a_0. We find that in addition to the known continuous spectrum inside [-1/3,0) of the matrix M without the zero-modes, there is also an additional eigenvalue inside (0,1). For every eigenvalue, there is a pair of eigenvectors, a twist-even and a twist-odd. We give analytically these eigenvectors as well as the generating function for their components. Also, we have found an interesting critical parameter b_0 = 8 ln 2 on which the forms of the eigenvectors depend.Comment: 25+1 pages, 3 Figures; typos corrected and some comments adde

    Ratio of Tensions from Vacuum String Field Theory

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    We show analytically that the ratio of the norm of sliver states agrees with the ratio of D-brane tensions. We find that the correct ratio appears as a twist anomaly.Comment: 13 pages, lanlmac; version to appear in JHE

    Dualities, Twists, and Gauge Theories with Non-Constant Non-Commutativity

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    We study the world volume theory of D3-branes wrapping the Melvin universe supported by background NSNS B-field. In the appropriate decoupling limit, the open string dynamics is that of non-commutative guage field theory with non-constant non-commutativity. We identify this model as a simple Melvin twist of flat D3 branes. Along similar lines, one recognizes the model of Hashimoto and Sethi as being the Melvin null twist, and the model of Dolan and Nappi as being the null Melvin twist, of the flat D3-brane. This construction therefore offers a unified perspective on most of the known explicit constructions of non-commutative gauge theories as a decoupled theory of D-branes in a B-field background. We also describe the world volume theory on the D3-brane in Melvin universe which is decaying via the nucleation of monopole anti-monopole pair.Comment: 18 pages, 1 figure, References added, typo correcte

    Open String Star as a Continuous Moyal Product

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    We establish that the open string star product in the zero momentum sector can be described as a continuous tensor product of mutually commuting two dimensional Moyal star products. Let the continuous variable Îș∈[ 0,∞)\kappa \in [~0,\infty) parametrize the eigenvalues of the Neumann matrices; then the noncommutativity parameter is given by Ξ(Îș)=2tanh⁥(πÎș/4)\theta(\kappa) =2\tanh(\pi\kappa/4). For each Îș\kappa, the Moyal coordinates are a linear combination of even position modes, and the Fourier transform of a linear combination of odd position modes. The commuting coordinate at Îș=0\kappa=0 is identified as the momentum carried by half the string. We discuss the relation to Bars' work, and attempt to write the string field action as a noncommutative field theory.Comment: 30 pages, LaTeX. One reference adde

    The Origins of Phase Transitions in Small Systems

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    The identification and classification of phases in small systems, e.g. nuclei, social and financial networks, clusters, and biological systems, where the traditional definitions of phase transitions are not applicable, is important to obtain a deeper understanding of the phenomena observed in such systems. Within a simple statistical model we investigate the validity and applicability of different classification schemes for phase transtions in small systems. We show that the whole complex temperature plane contains necessary information in order to give a distinct classification.Comment: 3 pages, 4 figures, revtex 4 beta 5, for further information see http://www.smallsystems.d
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