64 research outputs found

### Factorization and the Dressing Method for the Gel'fand-Dikii Hierarch

The isospectral flows of an $n^{th}$ order linear scalar differential
operator $L$ under the hypothesis that it possess a Baker-Akhiezer function
were originally investigated by Segal and Wilson from the point of view of
infinite dimensional Grassmanians, and the reduction of the KP hierarchy to the
Gel'fand-Dikii hierarchy. The associated first order systems and their formal
asymptotic solutions have a rich Lie algebraic structure which was investigated
by Drinfeld and Sokolov. We investigate the matrix Riemann-Hilbert
factorizations for these systems, and show that different factorizations lead
respectively to the potential, modified, and ordinary Gel'fand-Dikii flows. Lie
algebra decompositions (the Adler-Kostant-Symes method) are obtained for the
modified and potential flows. For $n>3$ the appropriate factorization for the
Gel'fand-Dikii flows is not a group factorization, as would be expected; yet a
modification of the dressing method still works.
A direct proof, based on a Fredholm determinant associated with the
factorization problem, is given that the potentials are meromorphic in $x$ and
in the time variables. Potentials with Baker-Akhiezer functions include the
multisoliton and rational solutions, as well as potentials in the scattering
class with compactly supported scattering data. The latter are dense in the
scattering class

### Heat flow method to Lichnerowicz type equation on closed manifolds

In this paper, we establish existence results for positive solutions to the
Lichnerowicz equation of the following type in closed manifolds -\Delta
u=A(x)u^{-p}-B(x)u^{q},\quad in\quad M, where $p>1, q>0$, and $A(x)>0$,
$B(x)\geq0$ are given smooth functions. Our analysis is based on the global
existence of positive solutions to the following heat equation {ll} u_t-\Delta
u=A(x)u^{-p}-B(x)u^{q},\quad in\quad M\times\mathbb{R}^{+}, u(x,0)=u_0,\quad
in\quad M with the positive smooth initial data $u_0$.Comment: 10 page

### Lattice gas model in random medium and open boundaries: hydrodynamic and relaxation to the steady state

We consider a lattice gas interacting by the exclusion rule in the presence
of a random field given by i.i.d. bounded random variables in a bounded domain
in contact with particles reservoir at different densities. We show, in
dimensions $d \ge 3$, that the rescaled empirical density field almost surely,
with respect to the random field, converges to the unique weak solution of a
non linear parabolic equation having the diffusion matrix determined by the
statistical properties of the external random field and boundary conditions
determined by the density of the reservoir. Further we show that the rescaled
empirical density field, in the stationary regime, almost surely with respect
to the random field, converges to the solution of the associated stationary
transport equation

### Block Toeplitz determinants, constrained KP and Gelfand-Dickey hierarchies

We propose a method for computing any Gelfand-Dickey tau function living in
Segal-Wilson Grassmannian as the asymptotics of block Toeplitz determinant
associated to a certain class of symbols. Also truncated block Toeplitz
determinants associated to the same symbols are shown to be tau function for
rational reductions of KP. Connection with Riemann-Hilbert problems is
investigated both from the point of view of integrable systems and block
Toeplitz operator theory. Examples of applications to algebro-geometric
solutions are given.Comment: 35 pages. Typos corrected, some changes in the introductio

### Multiplicity of supercritical fronts for reaction-diffusion equations in cylinders

We study multiplicity of the supercritical traveling front solutions for
scalar reaction-diffusion equations in infinite cylinders which invade a
linearly unstable equilibrium. These equations are known to possess traveling
wave solutions connecting an unstable equilibrium to the closest stable
equilibrium for all speeds exceeding a critical value. We show that these are,
in fact, the only traveling front solutions in the considered problems for
sufficiently large speeds. In addition, we show that other traveling fronts
connecting to the unstable equilibrium may exist in a certain range of the wave
speed. These results are obtained with the help of a variational
characterization of such solutions

### Renormalizing Partial Differential Equations

In this review paper, we explain how to apply Renormalization Group ideas to
the analysis of the long-time asymptotics of solutions of partial differential
equations. We illustrate the method on several examples of nonlinear parabolic
equations. We discuss many applications, including the stability of profiles
and fronts in the Ginzburg-Landau equation, anomalous scaling laws in
reaction-diffusion equations, and the shape of a solution near a blow-up point.Comment: 34 pages, Latex; [email protected]; [email protected]

### Can a Species Keep Pace with a Shifting Climate?

Consider a patch of favorable habitat surrounded by unfavorable habitat and assume that due to a shifting climate, the patch moves with a fixed speed in a one-dimensional universe. Let the patch be inhabited by a population of individuals that reproduce, disperse, and die. Will the population persist? How does the answer depend on the length of the patch, the speed of movement of the patch, the net population growth rate under constant conditions, and the mobility of the individuals? We will answer these questions in the context of a simple dynamic profile model that incorporates climate shift, population dynamics, and migration. The model takes the form of a growth-diffusion equation. We first consider a special case and derive an explicit condition by glueing phase portraits. Then we establish a strict qualitative dichotomy for a large class of models by way of rigorous PDE methods, in particular the maximum principle. The results show that mobility can both reduce and enhance the ability to track climate change that a narrow range can severely reduce this ability and that population range and total population size can both increase and decrease under a moving climate. It is also shown that range shift may be easier to detect at the expanding front, simply because it is considerably steeper than the retreating back

### Asymptotic stability of solitary waves

We show that the family of solitary waves (1-solitons) of the Korteweg-de Vries equation is asymptotically stable. Our methods also apply for the solitary waves of a class of generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations, In particular, we study the case where f(u)=u p+1 / (p+1) , p =1, 2, 3 (and 30, with f âˆˆ C 4 ). The same asymptotic stability result for KdV is also proved for the case p =2 (the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation). We also prove asymptotic stability for the family of solitary waves for all but a finite number of values of p between 3 and 4. (The solitary waves are known to undergo a transition from stability to instability as the parameter p increases beyond the critical value p =4.) The solution is decomposed into a modulating solitary wave, with time-varying speed c(t) and phase Î³( t ) ( bound state part ), and an infinite dimensional perturbation ( radiating part ). The perturbation is shown to decay exponentially in time, in a local sense relative to a frame moving with the solitary wave. As p â†’4 âˆ’ , the local decay or radiation rate decreases due to the presence of a resonance pole associated with the linearized evolution equation for solitary wave perturbations.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/46489/1/220_2005_Article_BF02101705.pd

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