318 research outputs found

### Renormalization study of two-dimensional convergent solutions of the porous medium equation

In the focusing problem we study a solution of the porous medium equation
$u_t=\Delta (u^m)$ whose initial distribution is positive in the exterior of a
closed non-circular two dimensional region, and zero inside. We implement a
numerical scheme that renormalizes the solution each time that the average size
of the empty region reduces by a half. The initial condition is a function with
circular level sets distorted with a small sinusoidal perturbation of wave
number $k\geq 3$. We find that for nonlinearity exponents m smaller than a
critical value which depends on k, the solution tends to a self-similar regime,
characterized by rounded polygonal interfaces and similarity exponents that
depend on m and on the discrete rotational symmetry number k. For m greater
than the critical value, the final form of the interface is circular.Comment: 26 pages, Latex, 13 ps figure

### Transition between Two Oscillation Modes

A model for the symmetric coupling of two self-oscillators is presented. The
nonlinearities cause the system to vibrate in two modes of different
symmetries. The transition between these two regimes of oscillation can occur
by two different scenarios. This might model the release of vortices behind
circular cylinders with a possible transition from a symmetric to an
antisymmetric Benard-von Karman vortex street.Comment: 12 pages, 0 figure

### On the validity of the linear speed selection mechanism for fronts of the nonlinear diffusion equation

We consider the problem of the speed selection mechanism for the one
dimensional nonlinear diffusion equation $u_t = u_{xx} + f(u)$. It has been
rigorously shown by Aronson and Weinberger that for a wide class of functions
$f$, sufficiently localized initial conditions evolve in time into a monotonic
front which propagates with speed $c^*$ such that $2 \sqrt{f'(0)} \leq c^* < 2
\sqrt{\sup(f(u)/u)}$. The lower value $c_L = 2 \sqrt{f'(0)}$ is that predicted
by the linear marginal stability speed selection mechanism. We derive a new
lower bound on the the speed of the selected front, this bound depends on $f$
and thus enables us to assess the extent to which the linear marginal selection
mechanism is valid.Comment: 9 pages, REVTE

### The Weakly Pushed Nature of "Pulled" Fronts with a Cutoff

The concept of pulled fronts with a cutoff $\epsilon$ has been introduced to
model the effects of discrete nature of the constituent particles on the
asymptotic front speed in models with continuum variables (Pulled fronts are
the fronts which propagate into an unstable state, and have an asymptotic front
speed equal to the linear spreading speed $v^*$ of small linear perturbations
around the unstable state). In this paper, we demonstrate that the introduction
of a cutoff actually makes such pulled fronts weakly pushed. For the nonlinear
diffusion equation with a cutoff, we show that the longest relaxation times
$\tau_m$ that govern the convergence to the asymptotic front speed and profile,
are given by $\tau_m^{-1} \simeq [(m+1)^2-1] \pi^2 / \ln^2 \epsilon$, for
$m=1,2,...$.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, submitted to Brief Reports, Phys. Rev.

### The influence of fractional diffusion in Fisher-KPP equations

We study the Fisher-KPP equation where the Laplacian is replaced by the
generator of a Feller semigroup with power decaying kernel, an important
example being the fractional Laplacian. In contrast with the case of the stan-
dard Laplacian where the stable state invades the unstable one at constant
speed, we prove that with fractional diffusion, generated for instance by a
stable L\'evy process, the front position is exponential in time. Our results
provide a mathe- matically rigorous justification of numerous heuristics about
this model

### Minimal speed of fronts of reaction-convection-diffusion equations

We study the minimal speed of propagating fronts of convection reaction
diffusion equations of the form $u_t + \mu \phi(u) u_x = u_{xx} +f(u)$ for
positive reaction terms with $f'(0 >0$. The function $\phi(u)$ is continuous
and vanishes at $u=0$. A variational principle for the minimal speed of the
waves is constructed from which upper and lower bounds are obtained. This
permits the a priori assesment of the effect of the convective term on the
minimal speed of the traveling fronts. If the convective term is not strong
enough, it produces no effect on the minimal speed of the fronts. We show that
if $f''(u)/\sqrt{f'(0)} + \mu \phi'(u) < 0$, then the minimal speed is given by
the linear value $2 \sqrt{f'(0)}$, and the convective term has no effect on the
minimal speed. The results are illustrated by applying them to the exactly
solvable case $u_t + \mu u u_x = u_{xx} + u (1 -u)$. Results are also given for
the density dependent diffusion case $u_t + \mu \phi(u) u_x = (D(u)u_x)_x
+f(u)$.Comment: revised, new results adde

### Front Propagation and Diffusion in the A <--> A + A Hard-core Reaction on a Chain

We study front propagation and diffusion in the reaction-diffusion system A
$\leftrightharpoons$ A + A on a lattice. On each lattice site at most one A
particle is allowed at any time. In this paper, we analyze the problem in the
full range of parameter space, keeping the discrete nature of the lattice and
the particles intact. Our analysis of the stochastic dynamics of the foremost
occupied lattice site yields simple expressions for the front speed and the
front diffusion coefficient which are in excellent agreement with simulation
results.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, to appear in Phys. Rev.

### Emergence of pulled fronts in fermionic microscopic particle models

We study the emergence and dynamics of pulled fronts described by the
Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov (FKPP) equation in the microscopic
reaction-diffusion process A + A A$ on the lattice when only a particle is
allowed per site. To this end we identify the parameter that controls the
strength of internal fluctuations in this model, namely, the number of
particles per correlated volume. When internal fluctuations are suppressed, we
explictly see the matching between the deterministic FKPP description and the
microscopic particle model.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. E as a
Rapid Communicatio

### Maximal and minimal spreading speeds for reaction diffusion equations in nonperiodic slowly varying media

This paper investigates the asymptotic behavior of the solutions of the
Fisher-KPP equation in a heterogeneous medium, $\partial_t u = \partial_{xx} u
+ f(x,u),$ associated with a compactly supported initial datum. A typical
nonlinearity we consider is $f(x,u) = \mu_0 (\phi (x)) u(1-u)$, where $\mu_0$
is a 1-periodic function and $\phi$ is a $\mathcal{C}^1$ increasing function
that satisfies $\lim_{x\to +\infty} \phi (x) = +\infty$ and $\lim_{x\to
+\infty} \phi' (x) = 0$. Although quite specific, the choice of such a reaction
term is motivated by its highly heterogeneous nature. We exhibit two different
behaviors for $u$ for large times, depending on the speed of the convergence of
$\phi$ at infinity. If $\phi$ grows sufficiently slowly, then we prove that the
spreading speed of $u$ oscillates between two distinct values. If $\phi$ grows
rapidly, then we compute explicitly a unique and well determined speed of
propagation $w_\infty$, arising from the limiting problem of an infinite
period. We give a heuristic interpretation for these two behaviors

### Dynamical aspects of mean field plane rotators and the Kuramoto model

The Kuramoto model has been introduced in order to describe synchronization
phenomena observed in groups of cells, individuals, circuits, etc... We look at
the Kuramoto model with white noise forces: in mathematical terms it is a set
of N oscillators, each driven by an independent Brownian motion with a constant
drift, that is each oscillator has its own frequency, which, in general,
changes from one oscillator to another (these frequencies are usually taken to
be random and they may be viewed as a quenched disorder). The interactions
between oscillators are of long range type (mean field). We review some results
on the Kuramoto model from a statistical mechanics standpoint: we give in
particular necessary and sufficient conditions for reversibility and we point
out a formal analogy, in the N to infinity limit, with local mean field models
with conservative dynamics (an analogy that is exploited to identify in
particular a Lyapunov functional in the reversible set-up). We then focus on
the reversible Kuramoto model with sinusoidal interactions in the N to infinity
limit and analyze the stability of the non-trivial stationary profiles arising
when the interaction parameter K is larger than its critical value K_c. We
provide an analysis of the linear operator describing the time evolution in a
neighborhood of the synchronized profile: we exhibit a Hilbert space in which
this operator has a self-adjoint extension and we establish, as our main
result, a spectral gap inequality for every K>K_c.Comment: 18 pages, 1 figur

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