818 research outputs found

### Pore Stabilization in Cohesive Granular Systems

Cohesive powders tend to form porous aggregates which can be compacted by
applying an external pressure. This process is modelled using the Contact
Dynamics method supplemented with a cohesion law and rolling friction. Starting
with ballistic deposits of varying density, we investigate how the porosity of
the compacted sample depends on the cohesion strength and the friction
coefficients. This allows to explain different pore stabilization mechanisms.
The final porosity depends on the cohesion force scaled by the external
pressure and on the lateral distance between branches of the ballistic deposit
r_capt. Even if cohesion is switched off, pores can be stabilized by Coulomb
friction alone. This effect is weak for round particles, as long as the
friction coefficient is smaller than 1. However, for nonspherical particles the
effect is much stronger.Comment: 10 pages, 15 figure

### Island Density in Homoepitaxial Growth:Improved Monte Carlo Results

We reexamine the density of two dimensional islands in the submonolayer
regime of a homoepitaxially growing surface using the coarse grained Monte
Carlo simulation with random sequential updating rather than parallel updating.
It turns out that the power law dependence of the density of islands on the
deposition rate agrees much better with the theoretical prediction than
previous data obtained by other methods if random sequential instead of
parallel updating is used.Comment: Latex with 2 PS figure file

### The WISDOM Radar: Unveiling the Subsurface Beneath the ExoMars Rover and Identifying the Best Locations for Drilling

The search for evidence of past or present life on Mars is the principal objective of the 2020 ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Rover mission. If such evidence is to be found anywhere, it will most likely be in the subsurface, where organic molecules are shielded from the destructive effects of ionizing radiation and atmospheric oxidants. For this reason, the ExoMars Rover mission has been optimized to investigate the subsurface to identify, understand, and sample those locations where conditions for the preservation of evidence of past life are most likely to be found. The Water Ice Subsurface Deposit Observation on Mars (WISDOM) ground-penetrating radar has been designed to provide information about the nature of the shallow subsurface over depth ranging from 3 to 10 m (with a vertical resolution of up to 3 cm), depending on the dielectric properties of the regolith. This depth range is critical to understanding the geologic evolution stratigraphy and distribution and state of subsurface H2O, which provide important clues in the search for life and the identification of optimal drilling sites for investigation and sampling by the Rover's 2-m drill. WISDOM will help ensure the safety and success of drilling operations by identification of potential hazards that might interfere with retrieval of subsurface samples

### Tunneling Spectroscopy in Degenerate p-Type Silicon

Coordinated Science Laboratory was formerly known as Control Systems LaboratoryJoint Services Electronics Program / DAAB 07-67-C-0199Jet Propulsion Lab / 95238

### Mounding Instability and Incoherent Surface Kinetics

Mounding instability in a conserved growth from vapor is analysed within the
framework of adatom kinetics on the growing surface. The analysis shows that
depending on the local structure on the surface, kinetics of adatoms may vary,
leading to disjoint regions in the sense of a continuum description. This is
manifested particularly under the conditions of instability. Mounds grow on
these disjoint regions and their lateral growth is governed by the flux of
adatoms hopping across the steps in the downward direction. Asymptotically
ln(t) dependence is expected in 1+1- dimensions. Simulation results confirm the
prediction. Growth in 2+1- dimensions is also discussed.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

### Surface Kinetics and Generation of Different Terms in a Conservative Growth Equation

A method based on the kinetics of adatoms on a growing surface under
epitaxial growth at low temperature in (1+1) dimensions is proposed to obtain a
closed form of local growth equation. It can be generalized to any growth
problem as long as diffusion of adatoms govern the surface morphology. The
method can be easily extended to higher dimensions. The kinetic processes
contributing to various terms in the growth equation (GE) are identified from
the analysis of in-plane and downward hops. In particular, processes
corresponding to the (h -> -h) symmetry breaking term and curvature dependent
term are discussed. Consequence of these terms on the stable and unstable
transition in (1+1) dimensions is analyzed. In (2+1) dimensions it is shown
that an additional (h -> -h) symmetry breaking term is generated due to the
in-plane curvature associated with the mound like structures. This term is
independent of any diffusion barrier differences between in-plane and out
of-plane migration. It is argued that terms generated in the presence of
downward hops are the relevant terms in a GE. Growth equation in the closed
form is obtained for various growth models introduced to capture most of the
processes in experimental Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth. Effect of
dissociation is also considered and is seen to have stabilizing effect on the
growth. It is shown that for uphill current the GE approach fails to describe
the growth since a given GE is not valid over the entire substrate.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figure

### Growth model with restricted surface relaxation

We simulate a growth model with restricted surface relaxation process in d=1
and d=2, where d is the dimensionality of a flat substrate. In this model, each
particle can relax on the surface to a local minimum, as the Edwards-Wilkinson
linear model, but only within a distance s. If the local minimum is out from
this distance, the particle evaporates through a refuse mechanism similar to
the Kim-Kosterlitz nonlinear model. In d=1, the growth exponent beta, measured
from the temporal behavior of roughness, indicates that in the coarse-grained
limit, the linear term of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation dominates in short
times (low-roughness) and, in asymptotic times, the nonlinear term prevails.
The crossover between linear and nonlinear behaviors occurs in a characteristic
time t_c which only depends on the magnitude of the parameter s, related to the
nonlinear term. In d=2, we find indications of a similar crossover, that is,
logarithmic temporal behavior of roughness in short times and power law
behavior in asymptotic times

### Interfaces with a single growth inhomogeneity and anchored boundaries

The dynamics of a one dimensional growth model involving attachment and
detachment of particles is studied in the presence of a localized growth
inhomogeneity along with anchored boundary conditions. At large times, the
latter enforce an equilibrium stationary regime which allows for an exact
calculation of roughening exponents. The stochastic evolution is related to a
spin Hamiltonian whose spectrum gap embodies the dynamic scaling exponent of
late stages. For vanishing gaps the interface can exhibit a slow morphological
transition followed by a change of scaling regimes which are studied
numerically. Instead, a faceting dynamics arises for gapful situations.Comment: REVTeX, 11 pages, 9 Postscript figure

### Crossover effects in the Wolf-Villain model of epitaxial growth in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions

A simple model of epitaxial growth proposed by Wolf and Villain is
investigated using extensive computer simulations. We find an unexpectedly
complex crossover behavior of the original model in both 1+1 and 2+1
dimensions. A crossover from the effective growth exponent $\beta_{\rm
eff}\!\approx\!0.37$ to $\beta_{\rm eff}\!\approx\!0.33$ is observed in 1+1
dimensions, whereas additional crossovers, which we believe are to the scaling
behavior of an Edwards--Wilkinson type, are observed in both 1+1 and 2+1
dimensions. Anomalous scaling due to power--law growth of the average step
height is found in 1+1 D, and also at short time and length scales in 2+1~D.
The roughness exponents $\zeta_{\rm eff}^{\rm c}$ obtained from the
height--height correlation functions in 1+1~D ($\approx\!3/4$) and 2+1~D
($\approx\!2/3$) cannot be simultaneously explained by any of the continuum
equations proposed so far to describe epitaxial growth.Comment: 11 pages, REVTeX 3.0, IC-DDV-93-00

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