818 research outputs found

    Pore Stabilization in Cohesive Granular Systems

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    Cohesive powders tend to form porous aggregates which can be compacted by applying an external pressure. This process is modelled using the Contact Dynamics method supplemented with a cohesion law and rolling friction. Starting with ballistic deposits of varying density, we investigate how the porosity of the compacted sample depends on the cohesion strength and the friction coefficients. This allows to explain different pore stabilization mechanisms. The final porosity depends on the cohesion force scaled by the external pressure and on the lateral distance between branches of the ballistic deposit r_capt. Even if cohesion is switched off, pores can be stabilized by Coulomb friction alone. This effect is weak for round particles, as long as the friction coefficient is smaller than 1. However, for nonspherical particles the effect is much stronger.Comment: 10 pages, 15 figure

    Island Density in Homoepitaxial Growth:Improved Monte Carlo Results

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    We reexamine the density of two dimensional islands in the submonolayer regime of a homoepitaxially growing surface using the coarse grained Monte Carlo simulation with random sequential updating rather than parallel updating. It turns out that the power law dependence of the density of islands on the deposition rate agrees much better with the theoretical prediction than previous data obtained by other methods if random sequential instead of parallel updating is used.Comment: Latex with 2 PS figure file

    The WISDOM Radar: Unveiling the Subsurface Beneath the ExoMars Rover and Identifying the Best Locations for Drilling

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    The search for evidence of past or present life on Mars is the principal objective of the 2020 ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Rover mission. If such evidence is to be found anywhere, it will most likely be in the subsurface, where organic molecules are shielded from the destructive effects of ionizing radiation and atmospheric oxidants. For this reason, the ExoMars Rover mission has been optimized to investigate the subsurface to identify, understand, and sample those locations where conditions for the preservation of evidence of past life are most likely to be found. The Water Ice Subsurface Deposit Observation on Mars (WISDOM) ground-penetrating radar has been designed to provide information about the nature of the shallow subsurface over depth ranging from 3 to 10‚ÄČm (with a vertical resolution of up to 3‚ÄČcm), depending on the dielectric properties of the regolith. This depth range is critical to understanding the geologic evolution stratigraphy and distribution and state of subsurface H2O, which provide important clues in the search for life and the identification of optimal drilling sites for investigation and sampling by the Rover's 2-m drill. WISDOM will help ensure the safety and success of drilling operations by identification of potential hazards that might interfere with retrieval of subsurface samples

    Tunneling Spectroscopy in Degenerate p-Type Silicon

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    Coordinated Science Laboratory was formerly known as Control Systems LaboratoryJoint Services Electronics Program / DAAB 07-67-C-0199Jet Propulsion Lab / 95238

    Mounding Instability and Incoherent Surface Kinetics

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    Mounding instability in a conserved growth from vapor is analysed within the framework of adatom kinetics on the growing surface. The analysis shows that depending on the local structure on the surface, kinetics of adatoms may vary, leading to disjoint regions in the sense of a continuum description. This is manifested particularly under the conditions of instability. Mounds grow on these disjoint regions and their lateral growth is governed by the flux of adatoms hopping across the steps in the downward direction. Asymptotically ln(t) dependence is expected in 1+1- dimensions. Simulation results confirm the prediction. Growth in 2+1- dimensions is also discussed.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Surface Kinetics and Generation of Different Terms in a Conservative Growth Equation

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    A method based on the kinetics of adatoms on a growing surface under epitaxial growth at low temperature in (1+1) dimensions is proposed to obtain a closed form of local growth equation. It can be generalized to any growth problem as long as diffusion of adatoms govern the surface morphology. The method can be easily extended to higher dimensions. The kinetic processes contributing to various terms in the growth equation (GE) are identified from the analysis of in-plane and downward hops. In particular, processes corresponding to the (h -> -h) symmetry breaking term and curvature dependent term are discussed. Consequence of these terms on the stable and unstable transition in (1+1) dimensions is analyzed. In (2+1) dimensions it is shown that an additional (h -> -h) symmetry breaking term is generated due to the in-plane curvature associated with the mound like structures. This term is independent of any diffusion barrier differences between in-plane and out of-plane migration. It is argued that terms generated in the presence of downward hops are the relevant terms in a GE. Growth equation in the closed form is obtained for various growth models introduced to capture most of the processes in experimental Molecular Beam Epitaxial growth. Effect of dissociation is also considered and is seen to have stabilizing effect on the growth. It is shown that for uphill current the GE approach fails to describe the growth since a given GE is not valid over the entire substrate.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figure

    Growth model with restricted surface relaxation

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    We simulate a growth model with restricted surface relaxation process in d=1 and d=2, where d is the dimensionality of a flat substrate. In this model, each particle can relax on the surface to a local minimum, as the Edwards-Wilkinson linear model, but only within a distance s. If the local minimum is out from this distance, the particle evaporates through a refuse mechanism similar to the Kim-Kosterlitz nonlinear model. In d=1, the growth exponent beta, measured from the temporal behavior of roughness, indicates that in the coarse-grained limit, the linear term of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation dominates in short times (low-roughness) and, in asymptotic times, the nonlinear term prevails. The crossover between linear and nonlinear behaviors occurs in a characteristic time t_c which only depends on the magnitude of the parameter s, related to the nonlinear term. In d=2, we find indications of a similar crossover, that is, logarithmic temporal behavior of roughness in short times and power law behavior in asymptotic times

    Interfaces with a single growth inhomogeneity and anchored boundaries

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    The dynamics of a one dimensional growth model involving attachment and detachment of particles is studied in the presence of a localized growth inhomogeneity along with anchored boundary conditions. At large times, the latter enforce an equilibrium stationary regime which allows for an exact calculation of roughening exponents. The stochastic evolution is related to a spin Hamiltonian whose spectrum gap embodies the dynamic scaling exponent of late stages. For vanishing gaps the interface can exhibit a slow morphological transition followed by a change of scaling regimes which are studied numerically. Instead, a faceting dynamics arises for gapful situations.Comment: REVTeX, 11 pages, 9 Postscript figure

    Crossover effects in the Wolf-Villain model of epitaxial growth in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions

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    A simple model of epitaxial growth proposed by Wolf and Villain is investigated using extensive computer simulations. We find an unexpectedly complex crossover behavior of the original model in both 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions. A crossover from the effective growth exponent ő≤eff‚ÄČ‚Ā£‚Čą‚ÄČ‚Ā£0.37\beta_{\rm eff}\!\approx\!0.37 to ő≤eff‚ÄČ‚Ā£‚Čą‚ÄČ‚Ā£0.33\beta_{\rm eff}\!\approx\!0.33 is observed in 1+1 dimensions, whereas additional crossovers, which we believe are to the scaling behavior of an Edwards--Wilkinson type, are observed in both 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions. Anomalous scaling due to power--law growth of the average step height is found in 1+1 D, and also at short time and length scales in 2+1~D. The roughness exponents ő∂effc\zeta_{\rm eff}^{\rm c} obtained from the height--height correlation functions in 1+1~D (‚Čą‚ÄČ‚Ā£3/4\approx\!3/4) and 2+1~D (‚Čą‚ÄČ‚Ā£2/3\approx\!2/3) cannot be simultaneously explained by any of the continuum equations proposed so far to describe epitaxial growth.Comment: 11 pages, REVTeX 3.0, IC-DDV-93-00
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