260,479 research outputs found

    Constraint satisfaction adaptive neural network and heuristics combined approaches for generalized job-shop scheduling

    Get PDF
    Copyright @ 2000 IEEEThis paper presents a constraint satisfaction adaptive neural network, together with several heuristics, to solve the generalized job-shop scheduling problem, one of NP-complete constraint satisfaction problems. The proposed neural network can be easily constructed and can adaptively adjust its weights of connections and biases of units based on the sequence and resource constraints of the job-shop scheduling problem during its processing. Several heuristics that can be combined with the neural network are also presented. In the combined approaches, the neural network is used to obtain feasible solutions, the heuristic algorithms are used to improve the performance of the neural network and the quality of the obtained solutions. Simulations have shown that the proposed neural network and its combined approaches are efficient with respect to the quality of solutions and the solving speed.This work was supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation under Grant 69684005 and the Chinese National High-Tech Program under Grant 863-511-9609-003, the EPSRC under Grant GR/L81468

    Earnings Management and Long-Run Stock Underperformance of Private Placements

    Get PDF
    The study investigates whether private placement issuers manipulate their earnings around the time of issuance and the effect of earnings management on the long-run stock performance. We find that managers of U.S. private placement issuers tend to engage in income-increasing earnings management in the year prior to the issuance of private placements. We further speculate that earnings management serves as a likely source of investor over-optimism at the time of private placements. To support this speculation, we find evidence suggesting that the income-increasing accounting accruals made at the time of private placements predict the post-issue long-term stock underperformance. The study contributes to the large body of literature on earnings manipulation around the time of securities issuance