361,144 research outputs found

### Relativistic Nuclear Energy Density Functionals: adjusting parameters to binding energies

We study a particular class of relativistic nuclear energy density
functionals in which only nucleon degrees of freedom are explicitly used in the
construction of effective interaction terms. Short-distance (high-momentum)
correlations, as well as intermediate and long-range dynamics, are encoded in
the medium (nucleon density) dependence of the strength functionals of an
effective interaction Lagrangian. Guided by the density dependence of
microscopic nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter, a phenomenological ansatz
for the density-dependent coupling functionals is accurately determined in
self-consistent mean-field calculations of binding energies of a large set of
axially deformed nuclei. The relationship between the nuclear matter volume,
surface and symmetry energies, and the corresponding predictions for nuclear
masses is analyzed in detail. The resulting best-fit parametrization of the
nuclear energy density functional is further tested in calculations of
properties of spherical and deformed medium-heavy and heavy nuclei, including
binding energies, charge radii, deformation parameters, neutron skin thickness,
and excitation energies of giant multipole resonances.Comment: 53 pages, 23 figures, accepted for publication in Physical Review

### Effect of Magnetization Inhomogeneity on Magnetic Microtraps for Atoms

We report on the origin of fragmentation of ultracold atoms observed on a
permanent magnetic film atom chip. A novel technique is used to characterize
small spatial variations of the magnetic field near the film surface using
radio frequency spectroscopy of the trapped atoms. Direct observations indicate
the fragmentation is due to a corrugation of the magnetic potential caused by
long range inhomogeneity in the film magnetization. A model which takes into
account two-dimensional variations of the film magnetization is consistent with
the observations.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

### Theory of Incompressible States in a Narrow Channel

We report on the properties of a system of interacting electrons in a narrow
channel in the quantum Hall effect regime. It is shown that an increase in the
strength of the Coulomb interaction causes abrupt changes in the width of the
charge-density profile of translationally invariant states. We derive a phase
diagram which includes many of the stable odd-denominator states as well as a
novel fractional quantum Hall state at lowest half-filled Landau level. The
collective mode evaluated at the half-filled case is strikingly similar to that
for an odd-denominator fractional quantum Hall state.Comment: 4 pages, REVTEX, and 4 .ps file

### Continuum Derrida Approach to Drift and Diffusivity in Random Media

By means of rather general arguments, based on an approach due to Derrida
that makes use of samples of finite size, we analyse the effective diffusivity
and drift tensors in certain types of random medium in which the motion of the
particles is controlled by molecular diffusion and a local flow field with
known statistical properties. The power of the Derrida method is that it uses
the equilibrium probability distribution, that exists for each {\em finite}
sample, to compute asymptotic behaviour at large times in the {\em infinite}
medium. In certain cases, where this equilibrium situation is associated with a
vanishing microcurrent, our results demonstrate the equality of the
renormalization processes for the effective drift and diffusivity tensors. This
establishes, for those cases, a Ward identity previously verified only to
two-loop order in perturbation theory in certain models. The technique can be
applied also to media in which the diffusivity exhibits spatial fluctuations.
We derive a simple relationship between the effective diffusivity in this case
and that for an associated gradient drift problem that provides an interesting
constraint on previously conjectured results.Comment: 18 pages, Latex, DAMTP-96-8

### Reconstructing Images from Projections Using the Maximum-Entropy Method. Numerical Simulations of Low-Aspect Astrotomography

The reconstruction of images from a small number of projections using the
maximum-entropy method (MEM) with the Shannon entropy is considered. MEM
provides higher-quality image reconstruction for sources with extended
components than the Hogbom CLEAN method, which is also used in low-aspect
astrotomography. The quality of image reconstruction for sources with mixed
structure containing bright, compact features embedded in a comparatively weak,
extended base can be further improved using a difference-mapping method, which
requires a generalization of MEM for the reconstruction of sign-variable
functions.We draw conclusions based on the results of numerical simulations for
a number of model radio sources with various morphologies.Comment: 11 pages, 9 figure

### He Scattering from Random Adsorbates, Disordered Compact Islands and Fractal Submonolayers: Intensity Manifestations of Surface Disorder

A theoretical study is made on He scattering from three fundamental classes
of disordered ad-layers: (a) Translationally random adsorbates, (b) disordered
compact islands and (c) fractal submonolayers. The implications of the results
to experimental studies of He scattering from disordered surfaces are
discussed, and a combined experimental-theoretical study is made for Ag
submonolayers on Pt(111). Some of the main theoretical findings are: (1)
Structural aspects of the calculated intensities from translationally random
clusters were found to be strongly correlated with those of individual
clusters. (2) Low intensity Bragg interference peaks appear even for scattering
from very small ad-islands, and contain information on the ad-island local
electron structure. (3) For fractal islands, just as for islands with a
different structure, the off-specular intensity depends on the parameters of
the He/Ag interaction, and does not follow a universal power law as previously
proposed in the literature. In the experimental-theoretical study of Ag on
Pt(111), we use first experimental He scattering data from low-coverage (single
adsorbate) systems to determine an empirical He/Ag-Pt potential of good
quality. Then, we carry out He scattering calculations for high coverage and
compare with experiments. The conclusions are that the actual experimental
phase corresponds to small compact Ag clusters of narrow size distribution,
translationally disordered on the surface.Comment: 36 double-spaced pages, 10 figures; accepted by J. Chem. Phys.,
scheduled to appear March 8. More info available at
http://www.fh.huji.ac.il/~dani

### Anomalous nucleation far from equilibrium

We present precision Monte Carlo data and analytic arguments for an
asymmetric exclusion process, involving two species of particles driven in
opposite directions on a $2 \times L$ lattice. We propose a scenario which
resolves a stark discrepancy between earlier simulation data, suggesting the
existence of an ordered phase, and an analytic conjecture according to which
the system should revert to a disordered state in the thermodynamic limit. By
analyzing the finite size effects in detail, we argue that the presence of a
single, seemingly macroscopic, cluster is an intermediate stage of a complex
nucleation process: In smaller systems, this cluster is destabilized while
larger systems allow the formation of multiple clusters. Both limits lead to
exponential cluster size distributions which are, however, controlled by very
different length scales.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, one colum

### Pion Propagation near the QCD Chiral Phase Transition

We point out that, in analogy with spin waves in antiferromagnets, all
parameters describing the real-time propagation of soft pions at temperatures
below the QCD chiral phase transition can be expressed in terms of static
correlators. This allows, in principle, the determination of the soft pion
dispersion relation on the lattice. Using scaling and universality arguments,
we determine the critical behavior of the parameters of pion propagation. We
predict that when the critical temperature is approached from below, the pole
mass of the pion drops despite the growth of the pion screening mass. This fact
is attributed to the decrease of the pion velocity near the phase transition.Comment: 8 pages (single column), RevTeX; added references, version to be
published in PR

### Corner transfer matrix renormalization group method for two-dimensional self-avoiding walks and other O(n) models

We present an extension of the corner transfer matrix renormalisation group
(CTMRG) method to O(n) invariant models, with particular interest in the
self-avoiding walk class of models (O(n=0)). The method is illustrated using an
interacting self-avoiding walk model. Based on the efficiency and versatility
when compared to other available numerical methods, we present CTMRG as the
method of choice for two-dimensional self-avoiding walk problems.Comment: 4 pages 7 figures Substantial rewrite of previous version to include
calculations of critical points and exponents. Final version accepted for
publication in PRE (Rapid Communications

### Effective diffusion constant in a two dimensional medium of charged point scatterers

We obtain exact results for the effective diffusion constant of a two
dimensional Langevin tracer particle in the force field generated by charged
point scatterers with quenched positions. We show that if the point scatterers
have a screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potential and are uniformly and independently
distributed then the effective diffusion constant obeys the
Volgel-Fulcher-Tammann law where it vanishes. Exact results are also obtained
for pure Coulomb scatterers frozen in an equilibrium configuration of the same
temperature as that of the tracer.Comment: 9 pages IOP LaTex, no figure

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