361,144 research outputs found

    Relativistic Nuclear Energy Density Functionals: adjusting parameters to binding energies

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    We study a particular class of relativistic nuclear energy density functionals in which only nucleon degrees of freedom are explicitly used in the construction of effective interaction terms. Short-distance (high-momentum) correlations, as well as intermediate and long-range dynamics, are encoded in the medium (nucleon density) dependence of the strength functionals of an effective interaction Lagrangian. Guided by the density dependence of microscopic nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter, a phenomenological ansatz for the density-dependent coupling functionals is accurately determined in self-consistent mean-field calculations of binding energies of a large set of axially deformed nuclei. The relationship between the nuclear matter volume, surface and symmetry energies, and the corresponding predictions for nuclear masses is analyzed in detail. The resulting best-fit parametrization of the nuclear energy density functional is further tested in calculations of properties of spherical and deformed medium-heavy and heavy nuclei, including binding energies, charge radii, deformation parameters, neutron skin thickness, and excitation energies of giant multipole resonances.Comment: 53 pages, 23 figures, accepted for publication in Physical Review

    Effect of Magnetization Inhomogeneity on Magnetic Microtraps for Atoms

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    We report on the origin of fragmentation of ultracold atoms observed on a permanent magnetic film atom chip. A novel technique is used to characterize small spatial variations of the magnetic field near the film surface using radio frequency spectroscopy of the trapped atoms. Direct observations indicate the fragmentation is due to a corrugation of the magnetic potential caused by long range inhomogeneity in the film magnetization. A model which takes into account two-dimensional variations of the film magnetization is consistent with the observations.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Theory of Incompressible States in a Narrow Channel

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    We report on the properties of a system of interacting electrons in a narrow channel in the quantum Hall effect regime. It is shown that an increase in the strength of the Coulomb interaction causes abrupt changes in the width of the charge-density profile of translationally invariant states. We derive a phase diagram which includes many of the stable odd-denominator states as well as a novel fractional quantum Hall state at lowest half-filled Landau level. The collective mode evaluated at the half-filled case is strikingly similar to that for an odd-denominator fractional quantum Hall state.Comment: 4 pages, REVTEX, and 4 .ps file

    Continuum Derrida Approach to Drift and Diffusivity in Random Media

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    By means of rather general arguments, based on an approach due to Derrida that makes use of samples of finite size, we analyse the effective diffusivity and drift tensors in certain types of random medium in which the motion of the particles is controlled by molecular diffusion and a local flow field with known statistical properties. The power of the Derrida method is that it uses the equilibrium probability distribution, that exists for each {\em finite} sample, to compute asymptotic behaviour at large times in the {\em infinite} medium. In certain cases, where this equilibrium situation is associated with a vanishing microcurrent, our results demonstrate the equality of the renormalization processes for the effective drift and diffusivity tensors. This establishes, for those cases, a Ward identity previously verified only to two-loop order in perturbation theory in certain models. The technique can be applied also to media in which the diffusivity exhibits spatial fluctuations. We derive a simple relationship between the effective diffusivity in this case and that for an associated gradient drift problem that provides an interesting constraint on previously conjectured results.Comment: 18 pages, Latex, DAMTP-96-8

    Reconstructing Images from Projections Using the Maximum-Entropy Method. Numerical Simulations of Low-Aspect Astrotomography

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    The reconstruction of images from a small number of projections using the maximum-entropy method (MEM) with the Shannon entropy is considered. MEM provides higher-quality image reconstruction for sources with extended components than the Hogbom CLEAN method, which is also used in low-aspect astrotomography. The quality of image reconstruction for sources with mixed structure containing bright, compact features embedded in a comparatively weak, extended base can be further improved using a difference-mapping method, which requires a generalization of MEM for the reconstruction of sign-variable functions.We draw conclusions based on the results of numerical simulations for a number of model radio sources with various morphologies.Comment: 11 pages, 9 figure

    He Scattering from Random Adsorbates, Disordered Compact Islands and Fractal Submonolayers: Intensity Manifestations of Surface Disorder

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    A theoretical study is made on He scattering from three fundamental classes of disordered ad-layers: (a) Translationally random adsorbates, (b) disordered compact islands and (c) fractal submonolayers. The implications of the results to experimental studies of He scattering from disordered surfaces are discussed, and a combined experimental-theoretical study is made for Ag submonolayers on Pt(111). Some of the main theoretical findings are: (1) Structural aspects of the calculated intensities from translationally random clusters were found to be strongly correlated with those of individual clusters. (2) Low intensity Bragg interference peaks appear even for scattering from very small ad-islands, and contain information on the ad-island local electron structure. (3) For fractal islands, just as for islands with a different structure, the off-specular intensity depends on the parameters of the He/Ag interaction, and does not follow a universal power law as previously proposed in the literature. In the experimental-theoretical study of Ag on Pt(111), we use first experimental He scattering data from low-coverage (single adsorbate) systems to determine an empirical He/Ag-Pt potential of good quality. Then, we carry out He scattering calculations for high coverage and compare with experiments. The conclusions are that the actual experimental phase corresponds to small compact Ag clusters of narrow size distribution, translationally disordered on the surface.Comment: 36 double-spaced pages, 10 figures; accepted by J. Chem. Phys., scheduled to appear March 8. More info available at http://www.fh.huji.ac.il/~dani

    Anomalous nucleation far from equilibrium

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    We present precision Monte Carlo data and analytic arguments for an asymmetric exclusion process, involving two species of particles driven in opposite directions on a 2Ă—L2 \times L lattice. We propose a scenario which resolves a stark discrepancy between earlier simulation data, suggesting the existence of an ordered phase, and an analytic conjecture according to which the system should revert to a disordered state in the thermodynamic limit. By analyzing the finite size effects in detail, we argue that the presence of a single, seemingly macroscopic, cluster is an intermediate stage of a complex nucleation process: In smaller systems, this cluster is destabilized while larger systems allow the formation of multiple clusters. Both limits lead to exponential cluster size distributions which are, however, controlled by very different length scales.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, one colum

    Pion Propagation near the QCD Chiral Phase Transition

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    We point out that, in analogy with spin waves in antiferromagnets, all parameters describing the real-time propagation of soft pions at temperatures below the QCD chiral phase transition can be expressed in terms of static correlators. This allows, in principle, the determination of the soft pion dispersion relation on the lattice. Using scaling and universality arguments, we determine the critical behavior of the parameters of pion propagation. We predict that when the critical temperature is approached from below, the pole mass of the pion drops despite the growth of the pion screening mass. This fact is attributed to the decrease of the pion velocity near the phase transition.Comment: 8 pages (single column), RevTeX; added references, version to be published in PR

    Corner transfer matrix renormalization group method for two-dimensional self-avoiding walks and other O(n) models

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    We present an extension of the corner transfer matrix renormalisation group (CTMRG) method to O(n) invariant models, with particular interest in the self-avoiding walk class of models (O(n=0)). The method is illustrated using an interacting self-avoiding walk model. Based on the efficiency and versatility when compared to other available numerical methods, we present CTMRG as the method of choice for two-dimensional self-avoiding walk problems.Comment: 4 pages 7 figures Substantial rewrite of previous version to include calculations of critical points and exponents. Final version accepted for publication in PRE (Rapid Communications

    Effective diffusion constant in a two dimensional medium of charged point scatterers

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    We obtain exact results for the effective diffusion constant of a two dimensional Langevin tracer particle in the force field generated by charged point scatterers with quenched positions. We show that if the point scatterers have a screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potential and are uniformly and independently distributed then the effective diffusion constant obeys the Volgel-Fulcher-Tammann law where it vanishes. Exact results are also obtained for pure Coulomb scatterers frozen in an equilibrium configuration of the same temperature as that of the tracer.Comment: 9 pages IOP LaTex, no figure
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