67 research outputs found

### Stress response function of a granular layer: quantitative comparison between experiments and isotropic elasticity

We measured the vertical pressure response function of a layer of sand
submitted to a localized normal force at its surface. We found that this
response profile depends on the way the layer has been prepared: all profiles
show a single centered peak whose width scales with the thickness of the layer,
but a dense packing gives a wider peak than a loose one. We calculate the
prediction of isotropic elastic theory in presence of a bottom boundary and
compare it to the data. We found that the theory gives the right scaling and
the correct qualitative shape, but fails to really fit the data.Comment: 22 pages, 9 figures, submitted to Euro. Phys. J.

### Force Chains, Microelasticity and Macroelasticity

It has been claimed that quasistatic granular materials, as well as nanoscale
materials, exhibit departures from elasticity even at small loadings. It is
demonstrated, using 2D and 3D models with interparticle harmonic interactions,
that such departures are expected at small scales [below O(100) particle
diameters], at which continuum elasticity is invalid, and vanish at large
scales. The models exhibit force chains on small scales, and force and stress
distributions which agree with experimental findings. Effects of anisotropy,
disorder and boundary conditions are discussed as well.Comment: 4 pages, 11 figures, RevTeX 4, revised and resubmitted to Phys. Rev.
Let

### Particle displacements in the elastic deformation of amorphous materials: local fluctuations vs. non-affine field

We study the local disorder in the deformation of amorphous materials by
decomposing the particle displacements into a continuous, inhomogeneous field
and the corresponding fluctuations. We compare these fields to the commonly
used non-affine displacements in an elastically deformed 2D Lennard-Jones
glass. Unlike the non-affine field, the fluctuations are very localized, and
exhibit a much smaller (and system size independent) correlation length, on the
order of a particle diameter, supporting the applicability of the notion of
local "defects" to such materials. We propose a scalar "noise" field to
characterize the fluctuations, as an additional field for extended continuum
models, e.g., to describe the localized irreversible events observed during
plastic deformation.Comment: Minor corrections to match the published versio

### Segregation by thermal diffusion of an intruder in a moderately dense granular fluid

A solution of the inelastic Enskog equation that goes beyond the weak
dissipation limit and applies for moderate densities is used to determine the
thermal diffusion factor of an intruder immersed in a dense granular gas under
gravity. This factor provides a segregation criterion that shows the transition
between the Brazil-nut effect (BNE) and the reverse Brazil-nut effect (RBNE) by
varying the parameters of the system (masses, sizes, density and coefficients
of restitution). The form of the phase-diagrams for the BNE/RBNE transition
depends sensitively on the value of gravity relative to the thermal gradient,
so that it is possible to switch between both states for given values of the
parameters of the system. Two specific limits are considered with detail: (i)
absence of gravity, and (ii) homogeneous temperature. In the latter case, after
some approximations, our results are consistent with previous theoretical
results derived from the Enskog equation. Our results also indicate that the
influence of dissipation on thermal diffusion is more important in the absence
of gravity than in the opposite limit. The present analysis extends previous
theoretical results derived in the dilute limit case [V. Garz\'o, Europhys.
Lett. {\bf 75}, 521 (2006)] and is consistent with the findings of some recent
experimental results.Comment: 10 figure

### Sensitivity of the stress response function to packing preparation

A granular assembly composed of a collection of identical grains may pack
under different microscopic configurations with microscopic features that are
sensitive to the preparation history. A given configuration may also change in
response to external actions such as compression, shearing etc. We show using a
mechanical response function method developed experimentally and numerically,
that the macroscopic stress profiles are strongly dependent on these
preparation procedures. These results were obtained for both two and three
dimensions. The method reveals that, under a given preparation history, the
macroscopic symmetries of the granular material is affected and in most cases
significant departures from isotropy should be observed. This suggests a new
path toward a non-intrusive test of granular material constitutive properties.Comment: 15 pages, 11 figures, some numerical data corrected, to appear in J.
Phys. Cond. Mat. special issue on Granular Materials (M. Nicodemi Editor

### Navier-Stokes transport coefficients of $d$-dimensional granular binary mixtures at low density

The Navier-Stokes transport coefficients for binary mixtures of smooth
inelastic hard disks or spheres under gravity are determined from the Boltzmann
kinetic theory by application of the Chapman-Enskog method for states near the
local homogeneous cooling state. It is shown that the Navier-Stokes transport
coefficients are not affected by the presence of gravity. As in the elastic
case, the transport coefficients of the mixture verify a set of coupled linear
integral equations that are approximately solved by using the leading terms in
a Sonine polynomial expansion. The results reported here extend previous
calculations [V. Garz\'o and J. W. Dufty, Phys. Fluids {\bf 14}, 1476 (2002)]
to an arbitrary number of dimensions. To check the accuracy of the
Chapman-Enskog results, the inelastic Boltzmann equation is also numerically
solved by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to evaluate the
diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients for hard disks. The comparison shows
a good agreement over a wide range of values of the coefficients of restitution
and the parameters of the mixture (masses and sizes).Comment: 6 figures, to be published in J. Stat. Phy

### Anisotropy in granular media: classical elasticity and directed force chain network

A general approach is presented for understanding the stress response
function in anisotropic granular layers in two dimensions. The formalism
accommodates both classical anisotropic elasticity theory and linear theories
of anisotropic directed force chain networks. Perhaps surprisingly, two-peak
response functions can occur even for classical, anisotropic elastic materials,
such as triangular networks of springs with different stiffnesses. In such
cases, the peak widths grow linearly with the height of the layer, contrary to
the diffusive spreading found in `stress-only' hyperbolic models. In principle,
directed force chain networks can exhibit the two-peak, diffusively spreading
response function of hyperbolic models, but all models in a particular class
studied here are found to be in the elliptic regime.Comment: 34 pages, 17 figures (eps), submitted to PRE, figures amended,
partially to compare better to recent exp. wor

### Theory of Dilute Binary Granular Gas Mixtures

A computer-aided method for accurately carrying out the Chapman-Enskog expansion of the Boltzmann equation, including its inelastic variant, is presented and employed to derive a hydrodynamic description of a dilute binary mixture of smooth inelastic spheres. Constitutive relations, formally valid for all physical values of the coefficients of restitution, are calculated by carrying out the pertinent Chapman-Enskog expansion to sufficient high orders in the Sonine polynomials to ensure numerical convergence. The resulting hydrodynamic description is applied to the analysis of a vertically vibrated binary mixture of particles (under gravity) differing only in their respective coefficients of restitution. It is shown that even with this “minor”difference the mixture partly segregates, its steady state exhibiting a sandwich-like configuration

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