271 research outputs found

### Coordinate-free Solutions for Cosmological Superspace

Hamilton-Jacobi theory for general relativity provides an elegant covariant
formulation of the gravitational field. A general `coordinate-free' method of
integrating the functional Hamilton-Jacobi equation for gravity and matter is
described. This series approximation method represents a large generalization
of the spatial gradient expansion that had been employed earlier. Additional
solutions may be constructed using a nonlinear superposition principle. This
formalism may be applied to problems in cosmology.Comment: 11 pages, self-unpacking, uuencoded tex file, to be published in
Physical Review D (1997

### Generating Non-Gaussian Adiabatic Fluctuations from Inflation

As the quality of cosmological data continue to improve, it is natural to
test the statistics of primordial fluctuations: are they Gaussian or
non-Gaussian? I review a model which generates non-Gaussian adiabatic
fluctuations from inflation. Current investigations suggest that there may
possibly be a non-Gaussian signal in large angle cosmic microwave background
anisotropy data. Statistics of microwave anisotropies could thus serve as a
powerful probe of the very early Universe.Comment: 5 pages Latex file, 2 American Institute of Physics style files, 2
postscript figures, to be published in Proceedings of COSMO-98: International
Workshop on Particle Physics and the Early Universe Monterey, California,
Nov. 15-20, 1998, Ed. D. Caldwell (Published by American Institute for
Physic

### Initial Hypersurface Formulation: Hamilton-Jacobi Theory for Strongly Coupled Gravitational Systems

Strongly coupled gravitational systems describe Einstein gravity and matter
in the limit that Newton's constant G is assumed to be very large. The
nonlinear evolution of these systems may be solved analytically in the
classical and semiclassical limits by employing a Green function analysis.
Using functional methods in a Hamilton-Jacobi setting, one may compute the
generating functional (`the phase of the wavefunctional') which satisfies both
the energy constraint and the momentum constraint. Previous results are
extended to encompass the imposition of an arbitrary initial hypersurface. A
Lagrange multiplier in the generating functional restricts the initial fields,
and also allows one to formulate the energy constraint on the initial
hypersurface. Classical evolution follows as a result of minimizing the
generating functional with respect to the initial fields. Examples are given
describing Einstein gravity interacting with either a dust field and/or a
scalar field. Green functions are explicitly determined for (1) gravity, dust,
a scalar field and a cosmological constant and (2) gravity and a scalar field
interacting with an exponential potential. This formalism is useful in solving
problems of cosmology and of gravitational collapse.Comment: 30 pages Latex (IOP) file with 2 IOP style files, to be published in
Classical and Quantum Gravity (1998

### Characteristics of Cosmic Time

The nature of cosmic time is illuminated using Hamilton-Jacobi theory for
general relativity. For problems of interest to cosmology, one may solve for
the phase of the wavefunctional by using a line integral in superspace. Each
contour of integration corresponds to a particular choice of time hypersurface,
and each yields the same answer. In this way, one can construct a covariant
formalism where all time hypersurfaces are treated on an equal footing. Using
the method of characteristics, explicit solutions for an inflationary epoch
with several scalar fields are given. The theoretical predictions of double
inflation are compared with recent galaxy data and large angle microwave
background anisotropies.Comment: 20 pages, RevTex using Latex 2.09, Submitted to Physical Review D Two
figures included in fil

### Non-Gaussian microwave background fluctuations from nonlinear gravitational effects

Whether the statistics of primordial fluctuations for structure formation are Gaussian or otherwise may be determined if the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Satellite makes a detection of the cosmic microwave-background temperature anisotropy delta T(sub CMB)/T(sub CMB). Non-Gaussian fluctuations may be generated in the chaotic inflationary model if two scalar fields interact nonlinearly with gravity. Theoretical contour maps are calculated for the resulting Sachs-Wolfe temperature fluctuations at large angular scales (greater than 3 degrees). In the long-wavelength approximation, one can confidently determine the nonlinear evolution of quantum noise with gravity during the inflationary epoch because: (1) different spatial points are no longer in causal contact; and (2) quantum gravity corrections are typically small-- it is sufficient to model the system using classical random fields. If the potential for two scalar fields V(phi sub 1, phi sub 2) possesses a sharp feature, then non-Gaussian fluctuations may arise. An explicit model is given where cold spots in delta T(sub CMB)/T(sub CMB) maps are suppressed as compared to the Gaussian case. The fluctuations are essentially scale-invariant

### The nature of cosmic time

Hamilton-Jacobi theory provides a natural starting point for a covariant description of the gravitational field. Using a spatial gradient expansion, one may solve for the phase of the wavefunction by using a line-integral in superspace. Each contour of integration corresponds to a particular choice of time-hypersurface, and each yields the same answer. In this way, one can describe all time choices simultaneously. In an interesting application to cosmology, I compute large-angle microwave background anisotropies and the galaxy-galaxy correlation function associated with the scalar and tensor fluctuations of power-law inflation

### Solving the Hamilton-Jacobi Equation for General Relativity

We demonstrate a systematic method for solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation
for general relativity with the inclusion of matter fields. The generating
functional is expanded in a series of spatial gradients. Each term is
manifestly invariant under reparameterizations of the spatial coordinates
(``gauge-invariant''). At each order we solve the Hamiltonian constraint using
a conformal transformation of the 3-metric as well as a line integral in
superspace. This gives a recursion relation for the generating functional which
then may be solved to arbitrary order simply by functionally differentiating
previous orders. At fourth order in spatial gradients, we demonstrate solutions
for irrotational dust as well as for a scalar field. We explicitly evolve the
3-metric to the same order. This method can be used to derive the Zel'dovich
approximation for general relativity.Comment: 13 pages, RevTeX, DAMTP-R93/2

- â€¦