23,064 research outputs found

    Far-infrared surveys of galaxy evolution

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    Roughly half of the radiation from evolving galaxies in the early universe reaches us in the far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength range. Recent major advances in observing capabilities, in particular the launch of the Herschel Space Observatory in 2009, have dramatically enhanced our ability to use this information in the context of multiwavelength studies of galaxy evolution. Near its peak, three quarters of the cosmic infrared background is now resolved into individually detected sources. The use of far-infrared diagnostics of dust-obscured star formation and of interstellar medium conditions has expanded from rare extreme high-redshift galaxies to more typical main sequence galaxies and hosts of active galactic nuclei, out to z>~2. These studies shed light on the evolving role of steady equilibrium processes and of brief starbursts, at and since the peak of cosmic star formation and black hole accretion. This review presents a selection of recent far-infrared studies of galaxy evolution, with an emphasis on Herschel resultsComment: Review for Annual Review Astronomy Astrophysics vol. 52 (2014

    Globular cluster formation in merging galaxies?

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    The properties of a population of luminous blue clusters in the merging galaxy NGC 3597 are discussed, and the observability of the signature of such a population in later evolutionary stages of a merger is assessed. NGC 3597 is an advanced merger which has already developed into an elliptical-like object with a de Vaucouleurs brightness distribution, but intense star formation is continuing in the central 4 kpc. A population of unresolved blue objects that are concentrated towards the central region is identified as clusters belonging to NGC 3597

    Chiral SU(3) Symmetry and Strangeness

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    In this talk we review recent progress on the systematic evaluation of the kaon and antikaon spectral functions in dense nuclear matter based on a chiral SU(3) description of the low-energy pion-, kaon- and antikaon-nucleon scattering data.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figures, invited talk given by M.F.M.L. at the SQM2001 conferenc

    Combined large-N_c and heavy-quark operator analysis for the chiral Lagrangian with charmed baryons

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    The chiral SU(3)SU(3) Lagrangian with charmed baryons of spin JP=1/2+J^P=1/2^+ and JP=3/2+J^P=3/2^+ is analyzed. We consider all counter terms that are relevant at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N3^3LO) in a chiral extrapolation of the charmed baryon masses. At N2^2LO we find 16 low-energy parameters. There are 3 mass parameters for the anti-triplet and the two sextet baryons, 6 parameters describing the meson-baryon vertices and 7 symmetry breaking parameters. The heavy-quark spin symmetry predicts four sum rules for the meson-baryon vertices and degenerate masses for the two baryon sextet fields. Here a large-NcN_c operator analysis at NLO suggests the relevance of one further spin-symmetry breaking parameter. Going from N2^2LO to N3^3LO adds 17 chiral symmetry breaking parameters and 24 symmetry preserving parameters. For the leading symmetry conserving two-body counter terms involving two baryon fields and two Goldstone boson fields we find 36 terms. While the heavy-quark spin symmetry leads to 3616=2036-16=20 sum rules, an expansion in 1/Nc1/N_c at next-to-leading order (NLO) generates 367=2936-7= 29 parameter relations. A combined expansion leaves 3 unknown parameters only. For the symmetry breaking counter terms we find 17 terms, for which there are 179=817-9=8 sum rules from the heavy-quark spin symmetry and 175=1217-5=12 sum rules from a 1/Nc1/N_c expansion at NLO.Comment: 34 pages - one table - corrections applie

    Ultra-Luminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation?

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    We report high quality near-infrared spectroscopy of 12 ultra-luminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are 'ellipticals-in-formation'. Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gas and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution sensitive, r(eff)-sigma projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane and their distribution of v(rot)*sin(i)/sigma closely resemble those of intermediate mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas rich, disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history.Comment: submitted to Ap

    Dimension Spectra of Lines

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    This paper investigates the algorithmic dimension spectra of lines in the Euclidean plane. Given any line L with slope a and vertical intercept b, the dimension spectrum sp(L) is the set of all effective Hausdorff dimensions of individual points on L. We draw on Kolmogorov complexity and geometrical arguments to show that if the effective Hausdorff dimension dim(a, b) is equal to the effective packing dimension Dim(a, b), then sp(L) contains a unit interval. We also show that, if the dimension dim(a, b) is at least one, then sp(L) is infinite. Together with previous work, this implies that the dimension spectrum of any line is infinite

    Analytical results for a Fokker-Planck equation in the small noise limit

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    We present analytical results for the lowest cumulants of a stochastic process described by a Fokker-Planck equation with nonlinear drift. We show that, in the limit of small fluctuations, the mean, the variance and the covariance of the process can be expressed in compact form with the help of the Lambert W function. As an application, we discuss the interplay of noise and nonlinearity far from equilibrium.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure
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