7,017 research outputs found

### Structure of a viscoplastic theory

The general structure of a viscoplastic theory is developed from physical and thermodynamical considerations. The flow equation is of classical form. The dynamic recovery approach is shown to be superior to the hardening function approach for incorporating nonlinear strain hardening into the material response through the evolutionary equation for back stress. A novel approach for introducing isotropic strain hardening into the theory is presented, which results in a useful simplification. In particular, the limiting stress for the kinematic saturation of state (not the drag stress) is the chosen scalar-valued state variable. The resulting simplification is that there is no coupling between dynamic and thermal recovery terms in each evolutionary equation. The derived theory of viscoplasticity has the structure of a two-surface plasticity theory when the response is plasticlike, and the structure of a Bailey-Orowan creep theory when the response is creeplike

### Bounds on internal state variables in viscoplasticity

A typical viscoplastic model will introduce up to three types of internal state variables in order to properly describe transient material behavior; they are as follows: the back stress, the yield stress, and the drag strength. Different models employ different combinations of these internal variables--their selection and description of evolution being largely dependent on application and material selection. Under steady-state conditions, the internal variables cease to evolve and therefore become related to the external variables (stress and temperature) through simple functional relationships. A physically motivated hypothesis is presented that links the kinetic equation of viscoplasticity with that of creep under steady-state conditions. From this hypothesis one determines how the internal variables relate to one another at steady state, but most importantly, one obtains bounds on the magnitudes of stress and back stress, and on the yield stress and drag strength

### Thermoviscoplastic model with application to copper

A viscoplastic model is developed which is applicable to anisothermal, cyclic, and multiaxial loading conditions. Three internal state variables are used in the model; one to account for kinematic effects, and the other two to account for isotropic effects. One of the isotropic variables is a measure of yield strength, while the other is a measure of limit strength. Each internal state variable evolves through a process of competition between strain hardening and recovery. There is no explicit coupling between dynamic and thermal recovery in any evolutionary equation, which is a useful simplification in the development of the model. The thermodynamic condition of intrinsic dissipation constrains the thermal recovery function of the model. Application of the model is made to copper, and cyclic experiments under isothermal, thermomechanical, and nonproportional loading conditions are considered. Correlations and predictions of the model are representative of observed material behavior

### A theory of viscoplasticity accounting for internal damage

A constitutive theory for use in structural and durability analyses of high temperature isotropic alloys is presented. Constitutive equations based upon a potential function are determined from conditions of stability and physical considerations. The theory is self-consistent; terms are not added in an ad hoc manner. It extends a proven viscoplastic model by introducing the Kachanov-Rabotnov concept of net stress. Material degradation and inelastic deformation are unified; they evolve simultaneously and interactively. Both isotropic hardening and material degradation evolve with dissipated work which is the sum of inelastic work and internal work. Internal work is a continuum measure of the stored free energy resulting from inelastic deformation

### Asymptotic integration algorithms for nonhomogeneous, nonlinear, first order, ordinary differential equations

New methods for integrating systems of stiff, nonlinear, first order, ordinary differential equations are developed by casting the differential equations into integral form. Nonlinear recursive relations are obtained that allow the solution to a system of equations at time t plus delta t to be obtained in terms of the solution at time t in explicit and implicit forms. Examples of accuracy obtained with the new technique are given by considering systems of nonlinear, first order equations which arise in the study of unified models of viscoplastic behaviors, the spread of the AIDS virus, and predator-prey populations. In general, the new implicit algorithm is unconditionally stable, and has a Jacobian of smaller dimension than that which is acquired by current implicit methods, such as the Euler backward difference algorithm; yet, it gives superior accuracy. The asymptotic explicit and implicit algorithms are suitable for solutions that are of the growing and decaying exponential kinds, respectively, whilst the implicit Euler-Maclaurin algorithm is superior when the solution oscillates, i.e., when there are regions in which both growing and decaying exponential solutions exist

### From differential to difference equations for first order ODEs

When constructing an algorithm for the numerical integration of a differential equation, one should first convert the known ordinary differential equation (ODE) into an ordinary difference equation. Given this difference equation, one can develop an appropriate numerical algorithm. This technical note describes the derivation of two such ordinary difference equations applicable to a first order ODE. The implicit ordinary difference equation has the same asymptotic expansion as the ODE itself, whereas the explicit ordinary difference equation has an asymptotic that is similar in structure but different in value when compared with that of the ODE

### A viscoplastic model with application to LiF-22 percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt

A viscoplastic model for class M (metal-like behavior) materials is presented. One novel feature is its use of internal variables to change the stress exponent of creep (where n is approximately = 5) to that of natural creep (where n = 3), in accordance with experimental observations. Another feature is the introduction of a coupling in the evolution equations of the kinematic and isotropic internal variables, making thermal recovery of the kinematic variable implicit. These features enable the viscoplastic model to reduce to that of steady-state creep in closed form. In addition, the hardening parameters associated with the two internal state variables (one scalar-valued, the other tensor-valued) are considered to be functions of state, instead of being taken as constant-valued. This feature enables each internal variable to represent a much wider spectrum of internal states for the material. The model is applied to a LiF-22 percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt, which is being considered as a thermal energy storage material for space-based solar dynamic power systems

### A viscoplastic theory applied to copper

A phenomenologically based viscoplastic model is derived for copper. The model is thermodynamically constrained by the condition of material dissipativity. Two internal state variables are considered. The back stress accounts for strain-induced anisotropy, or kinematic hardening. The drag stress accounts for isotropic hardening. Static and dynamic recovery terms are not coupled in either evolutionary equation. The evolution of drag stress depends on static recovery, while the evolution of back stress depends on dynamic recovery. The material constants are determined from isothermal data. Model predictions are compared with experimental data for thermomechanical test conditions. They are in good agreement at the hot end of the loading cycle, but the model overpredicts the stress response at the cold end of the cycle

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