264 research outputs found

    Dynamic Arc-Flags in Road Networks

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    International audienceIn this work we introduce a new data structure, named Road-Signs, which allows us to efficiently update the Arc-Flags of a graph in a dynamic scenario. Road-Signs can be used to compute Arc-Flags, can be efficiently updated and do not require large space consumption for many real-world graphs like, e.g., graphs arising from road networks. In detail, we define an algorithm to preprocess Road-Signs and an algorithm to update them each time that a weight increase operation occurs on an edge of the network. We also experimentally analyze the proposed algorithms in real-world road networks showing that they yields a significant speed-up in the updating phase of Arc-Flags, at the cost of a very small space and time overhead in the preprocessing phase

    Fully Dynamic Maintenance of Arc-Flags in Road Networks

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    International audienceThe problem of finding best routes in road networks can be solved by applying Dijkstra's shortest paths algorithm. Unfortunately, road networks deriving from real-world applications are huge yielding unsustainable times to compute shortest paths. For this reason, great research efforts have been done to accelerate Dijkstra's algorithm on road networks. These efforts have led to the development of a number of speed-up techniques, as for example Arc-Flags, whose aim is to compute additional data in a preprocessing phase in order to accelerate the shortest paths queries in an on-line phase. The main drawback of most of these techniques is that they do not work well in dynamic scenarios. In this paper we propose a new algorithm to update the Arc-Flags of a graph subject to edge weight decrease operations. To check the practical performances of the new algorithm we experimentally analyze it, along with a previously known algorithm for edge weight increase operations, on real-world road networks subject to fully dynamic sequences of operations. Our experiments show a significant speed-up in the updating phase of the Arc-Flags, at the cost of a small space and time overhead in the preprocessing phase

    Arc-Flags in Dynamic Graphs

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    Computation of quickest paths has undergoing a rapid development in recent years. It turns out that many high-performance route planning algorithms are made up of several basic ingredients. However, not all of those ingredients have been analyzed in a emph{dynamic} scenario where edge weights change after preprocessing. In this work, we present how one of those ingredients, i.e., Arc-Flags can be applied in dynamic scenario

    Trip-Based Public Transit Routing

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    We study the problem of computing all Pareto-optimal journeys in a public transit network regarding the two criteria of arrival time and number of transfers taken. We take a novel approach, focusing on trips and transfers between them, allowing fine-grained modeling. Our experiments on the metropolitan network of London show that the algorithm computes full 24-hour profiles in 70 ms after a preprocessing phase of 30 s, allowing fast queries in dynamic scenarios.Comment: Minor corrections, no substantial changes. To be presented at ESA 201

    Distance Oracles for Time-Dependent Networks

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    We present the first approximate distance oracle for sparse directed networks with time-dependent arc-travel-times determined by continuous, piecewise linear, positive functions possessing the FIFO property. Our approach precomputes (1+ϵ)−(1+\epsilon)-approximate distance summaries from selected landmark vertices to all other vertices in the network. Our oracle uses subquadratic space and time preprocessing, and provides two sublinear-time query algorithms that deliver constant and (1+σ)−(1+\sigma)-approximate shortest-travel-times, respectively, for arbitrary origin-destination pairs in the network, for any constant σ>ϵ\sigma > \epsilon. Our oracle is based only on the sparsity of the network, along with two quite natural assumptions about travel-time functions which allow the smooth transition towards asymmetric and time-dependent distance metrics.Comment: A preliminary version appeared as Technical Report ECOMPASS-TR-025 of EU funded research project eCOMPASS (http://www.ecompass-project.eu/). An extended abstract also appeared in the 41st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2014, track-A

    Tractable Pathfinding for the Stochastic On-Time Arrival Problem

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    We present a new and more efficient technique for computing the route that maximizes the probability of on-time arrival in stochastic networks, also known as the path-based stochastic on-time arrival (SOTA) problem. Our primary contribution is a pathfinding algorithm that uses the solution to the policy-based SOTA problem---which is of pseudo-polynomial-time complexity in the time budget of the journey---as a search heuristic for the optimal path. In particular, we show that this heuristic can be exceptionally efficient in practice, effectively making it possible to solve the path-based SOTA problem as quickly as the policy-based SOTA problem. Our secondary contribution is the extension of policy-based preprocessing to path-based preprocessing for the SOTA problem. In the process, we also introduce Arc-Potentials, a more efficient generalization of Stochastic Arc-Flags that can be used for both policy- and path-based SOTA. After developing the pathfinding and preprocessing algorithms, we evaluate their performance on two different real-world networks. To the best of our knowledge, these techniques provide the most efficient computation strategy for the path-based SOTA problem for general probability distributions, both with and without preprocessing.Comment: Submission accepted by the International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms 2016 and published by Springer in the Lecture Notes in Computer Science series on June 1, 2016. Includes typographical corrections and modifications to pre-processing made after the initial submission to SODA'15 (July 7, 2014

    Advanced Multilevel Node Separator Algorithms

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    A node separator of a graph is a subset S of the nodes such that removing S and its incident edges divides the graph into two disconnected components of about equal size. In this work, we introduce novel algorithms to find small node separators in large graphs. With focus on solution quality, we introduce novel flow-based local search algorithms which are integrated in a multilevel framework. In addition, we transfer techniques successfully used in the graph partitioning field. This includes the usage of edge ratings tailored to our problem to guide the graph coarsening algorithm as well as highly localized local search and iterated multilevel cycles to improve solution quality even further. Experiments indicate that flow-based local search algorithms on its own in a multilevel framework are already highly competitive in terms of separator quality. Adding additional local search algorithms further improves solution quality. Our strongest configuration almost always outperforms competing systems while on average computing 10% and 62% smaller separators than Metis and Scotch, respectively

    Enhance the Efficiency of Heuristic Algorithm for Maximizing Modularity Q

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    Modularity Q is an important function for identifying community structure in complex networks. In this paper, we prove that the modularity maximization problem is equivalent to a nonconvex quadratic programming problem. This result provide us a simple way to improve the efficiency of heuristic algorithms for maximizing modularity Q. Many numerical results demonstrate that it is very effective.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure
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