28,636 research outputs found

    Renormalization of Drift and Diffusivity in Random Gradient Flows

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    We investigate the relationship between the effective diffusivity and effective drift of a particle moving in a random medium. The velocity of the particle combines a white noise diffusion process with a local drift term that depends linearly on the gradient of a gaussian random field with homogeneous statistics. The theoretical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulation. For the purely isotropic case the simulation, which measures the effective drift directly in a constant gradient background field, confirms the result previously obtained theoretically, that the effective diffusivity and effective drift are renormalized by the same factor from their local values. For this isotropic case we provide an intuitive explanation, based on a {\it spatial} average of local drift, for the renormalization of the effective drift parameter relative to its local value. We also investigate situations in which the isotropy is broken by the tensorial relationship of the local drift to the gradient of the random field. We find that the numerical simulation confirms a relatively simple renormalization group calculation for the effective diffusivity and drift tensors.Comment: Latex 16 pages, 5 figures ep

    Effect of nuclear structure on Type Ia supernova nucleosynthesis

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    The relationship among nuclear structure, the weak processes in nuclei, and astrophysics becomes quite apparent in supernova explosion and nucleosynthesis studies. In this brief article, I report on progress made in the last few years on calculating electron capture and beta-decay rates in iron-group nuclei. I also report on applications of these rates to Type-Ia nucleosynthesis studies.Comment: To appear in the proceedings of Nuclei In the Cosmos 200

    Dynamical transition for a particle in a squared Gaussian potential

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    We study the problem of a Brownian particle diffusing in finite dimensions in a potential given by ψ=ϕ2/2\psi= \phi^2/2 where ϕ\phi is Gaussian random field. Exact results for the diffusion constant in the high temperature phase are given in one and two dimensions and it is shown to vanish in a power-law fashion at the dynamical transition temperature. Our results are confronted with numerical simulations where the Gaussian field is constructed, in a standard way, as a sum over random Fourier modes. We show that when the number of Fourier modes is finite the low temperature diffusion constant becomes non-zero and has an Arrhenius form. Thus we have a simple model with a fully understood finite size scaling theory for the dynamical transition. In addition we analyse the nature of the anomalous diffusion in the low temperature regime and show that the anomalous exponent agrees with that predicted by a trap model.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures .eps, JPA styl

    Effective diffusion constant in a two dimensional medium of charged point scatterers

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    We obtain exact results for the effective diffusion constant of a two dimensional Langevin tracer particle in the force field generated by charged point scatterers with quenched positions. We show that if the point scatterers have a screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potential and are uniformly and independently distributed then the effective diffusion constant obeys the Volgel-Fulcher-Tammann law where it vanishes. Exact results are also obtained for pure Coulomb scatterers frozen in an equilibrium configuration of the same temperature as that of the tracer.Comment: 9 pages IOP LaTex, no figure

    Path integrals for stiff polymers applied to membrane physics

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    Path integrals similar to those describing stiff polymers arise in the Helfrich model for membranes. We show how these types of path integrals can be evaluated and apply our results to study the thermodynamics of a minority stripe phase in a bulk membrane. The fluctuation induced contribution to the line tension between the stripe and the bulk phase is computed, as well as the effective interaction between the two phases in the tensionless case where the two phases have differing bending rigidities.Comment: 11 pages RevTex, 4 figure

    Some observations on the renormalization of membrane rigidity by long-range interactions

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    We consider the renormalization of the bending and Gaussian rigidity of model membranes induced by long-range interactions between the components making up the membrane. In particular we analyze the effect of a finite membrane thickness on the renormalization of the bending and Gaussian rigidity by long-range interactions. Particular attention is paid to the case where the interactions are of a van der Waals type.Comment: 11 pages RexTex, no figure

    Perturbation theory for the effective diffusion constant in a medium of random scatterer

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    We develop perturbation theory and physically motivated resummations of the perturbation theory for the problem of a tracer particle diffusing in a random media. The random media contains point scatterers of density ρ\rho uniformly distributed through out the material. The tracer is a Langevin particle subjected to the quenched random force generated by the scatterers. Via our perturbative analysis we determine when the random potential can be approximated by a Gaussian random potential. We also develop a self-similar renormalisation group approach based on thinning out the scatterers, this scheme is similar to that used with success for diffusion in Gaussian random potentials and agrees with known exact results. To assess the accuracy of this approximation scheme its predictions are confronted with results obtained by numerical simulation.Comment: 22 pages, 6 figures, IOP (J. Phys. A. style