4,800 research outputs found

    Dynamical energy analysis on mesh grids: a new tool for describing the vibro-acoustic response of complex mechanical structures

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    We present a new approach for modelling noise and vibration in complex mechanical structures in the mid-to-high frequency regime. It is based on a dynamical energy analysis (DEA) formulation which extends standard techniques such as statistical energy analysis (SEA) towards non-diffusive wave fields. DEA takes into account the full directionality of the wave field and makes sub-structuring obsolete. It can thus be implemented on mesh grids commonly used, for example, in the finite element method (FEM). The resulting mesh based formulation of DEA can be implemented very efficiently using discrete flow mapping (DFM) as detailed in [1] and described here for applications in vibro-acoustics

    Wind-Driven Gas Networks and Star Formation in Galaxies: Reaction-Advection Hydrodynamic Simulations

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    The effects of wind-driven star formation feedback on the spatio-temporal organization of stars and gas in galaxies is studied using two-dimensional intermediate-representational quasi-hydrodynamical simulations. The model retains only a reduced subset of the physics, including mass and momentum conservation, fully nonlinear fluid advection, inelastic macroscopic interactions, threshold star formation, and momentum forcing by winds from young star clusters on the surrounding gas. Expanding shells of swept-up gas evolve through the action of fluid advection to form a ``turbulent'' network of interacting shell fragments whose overall appearance is a web of filaments (in two dimensions). A new star cluster is formed whenever the column density through a filament exceeds a critical threshold based on the gravitational instability criterion for an expanding shell, which then generates a new expanding shell after some time delay. A filament- finding algorithm is developed to locate the potential sites of new star formation. The major result is the dominance of multiple interactions between advectively-distorted shells in controlling the gas and star morphology, gas velocity distribution and mass spectrum of high mass density peaks, and the global star formation history. The gas morphology observations of gas in the LMC and in local molecular clouds. The frequency distribution of present-to-past average global star formation rate, the distribution of gas velocities in filaments (found to be exponential), and the cloud mass spectra (estimated using a structure tree method), are discussed in detail.Comment: 40 pp, 15 eps figs, mnras style, accepted for publication in MNRAS, abstract abridged, revisions in response to referee's comment

    The use of a formal sensitivity analysis on epidemic models with immune protection from maternally acquired antibodies

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    This paper considers the outcome of a formal sensitivity analysis on a series of epidemic model structures developed to study the population level effects of maternal antibodies. The analysis is used to compare the potential influence of maternally acquired immunity on various age and time domain observations of infection and serology, with and without seasonality. The results of the analysis indicate that time series observations are largely insensitive to variations in the average duration of this protection, and that age related empirical data are likely to be most appropriate for estimating these characteristics

    A microcontroller system for investigating the catch effect: Functional electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve

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    Correction of drop foot in hemiplegic gait is achieved by electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve with a series of pulses at a fixed frequency. However, during normal gait, the electromyographic signals from the tibialis anterior muscle indicate that muscle force is not constant but varies during the swing phase. The application of double pulses for the correction of drop foot may enhance the gait by generating greater torque at the ankle and thereby increase the efficiency of the stimulation with reduced fatigue. A flexible controller has been designed around the Odstock Drop Foot Stimulator to deliver different profiles of pulses implementing doublets and optimum series. A peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller with some external circuits has been designed and tested to accommodate six profiles. Preliminary results of the measurements from a normal subject seated in a multi-moment chair (an isometric torque measurement device) indicate that profiles containing doublets and optimum spaced pulses look favourable for clinical use

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    Oral contraception and eye disease: findings in two large cohort studies

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    AIM : To investigate the relation between oral contraceptive use and certain eye diseases. \ud \ud METHODS : Abstraction of the relevant data from the two large British cohort studies of the effects of oral contraception, the Royal College of General Practitioners' (RCGP) Oral Contraception Study and the Oxford-Family Planning Association (Oxford-FPA) Contraceptive Study. Both cohort studies commenced in 1968 and were organised on a national basis. Between them they have accumulated over 850 000 person years of observation involving 63 000 women. \ud \ud RESULTS : The conditions considered in the analysis were conjunctivitis, keratitis, iritis, lacrimal disease, strabismus, cataract, glaucoma, retinal detachment, and retinal vascular lesions. With the exception of retinal vascular lesions, there was no consistent evidence of important increases in risk of eye diseases in users of oral contraception. There was about a twofold increase in the risk of retinal vascular lesions in recent pill users in both studies (statistically significant only in the RCGP study). The increase was not limited to any specific type of lesion and may well reflect diagnostic bias. \ud \ud CONCLUSION : Oral contraceptive use does not appear to increase the risk of eye disease, with the possible exception of retinal vascular lesions. \ud \ud Keywords: oral contraception; eye disease; cohort studie