3,561 research outputs found

    Practical reasoning in political discourse: The UK government's response to the economic crisis in the 2008 Pre-Budget Report

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    This article focuses on practical reasoning in political discourse and argues for a better integration of argumentation theory with critical discourse analysis (CDA). Political discourse and its specific genres (for example, deliberation) primarily involve forms of practical reasoning, typically oriented towards finding solutions to problems and deciding on future courses of action. Practical reasoning is a form of inference from cognitive and motivational premises: from what we believe (about the situation or about means—end relations) and what we want or desire (our goals and values), leading to a normative judgement (and often a decision) concerning action. We offer an analysis of the main argument in the UK government’s 2008 Pre-Budget Report (HM Treasury, 2008) and suggest how a critical evaluation of the argument from the perspective of a normative theory of argumentation (particularly the informal logic developed by Douglas Walton) can provide the basis for an evaluation in terms of characteristic CDA concerns. We are advancing this analysis as a contribution to CDA, aimed at increasing the rigour and systematicity of its analyses of political discourse, and as a contribution to the normative concerns of critical social science

    Associations between selected demographic, biological, school environmental and physical education based correlates, and adolescent physical activity

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    The study investigated associations between selected physical activity correlates among 299 adolescents (90 boys, age 12-14 years) from 3 English schools. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Correlates represented biological, predisposing, and demographic factors as described in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Boys engaged in more self-reported (p < .01) and accelerometer assessed physical activity than girls (p = .02). Positive associations between sex (male), BMI, Perceived PE Ability, Perceived PE Worth, number of enrolled students, and physical activity outcomes were evident (p < .05). Schoolbased physical activity promotion should emphasize sex-specific enhancement of students' perceived PE competence and enjoyment

    Religious Vehicle Stickers in Nigeria: a discourse of identity, faith and social vision

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    This study focuses on analysing the ways in which vehicle stickers construct individual and group identities, people’s religious faith and social vision in the context of religious assumptions and practices in Nigeria. Data comprise 73 vehicle stickers collected in Lagos and Ota, between 2006 and 2007 and are analysed within the framework of the post-structuralist model of discourse analysis which views discourse as a product of a complex system of social and institutional practices that sustain its continuous existence (Derrida, 1982; Fairclough, 1989, 1992, 1995; Foucault, 1972, 1981). Results show that through stickers people define their individual and group identities within religious institutional practices. And as a means of group identification, they guarantee social security and privileges. In constructing social vision the stickers help mould the individual aspiration about a future which transcends the present. Significantly, stickers in the data also reveal the tension between Islam and Christianity and the struggle to propagate one above the other. KEY WORDS: assumption, discourse, discursive, practices, religion, stickers

    Relationships between maturity status, physical activity and physical self-perceptions in primary school children

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    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of maturity status on primary school children\u27s physical activity and physical self-perceptions. Altogether, 175 children (97 girls, 78 boys) aged 10.6 &plusmn; 0.3 years completed the Children and Youth Physical Self-Perception Profile and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for five consecutive days to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Anthropometric measures were completed to estimate maturity status. A two-level, multi-level analysis was used to assess the influence of maturity status on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and physical self-perceptions. Boys performed more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than girls (P &lt; 0.0001), but when the effect of maturity status was controlled the difference was reduced (P = 0.02). Significant differences between the sexes were also observed for physical self-perception sub-domains (boys &gt; girls, P = 0.02 to 0.0001). When maturity status was added to the model, significant differences were no longer apparent for each sub-domain, with the exception of perceived strength. Significant interactions between gender and maturity status revealed that boys\u27 physical self-perceptions improved with more advanced maturity status, whereas girls\u27 self-perceptions decreased (P = 0.07 to 0.002). Significant differences between the sexes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and some domains of physical self-perceptions were reduced or no longer evident when the effect of maturity status was controlled. Maturity status may differentially influence boys\u27 and girls\u27 physical self-perceptions. <br /

    Bias in area under the curve for longitudinal RCTs

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    ‘It’s just taking our souls back’: discourses of apartheid and race

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    Although apartheid officially ended in 1994, the issue of race as a primary identity marker has continued to permeate many aspects of private and public life in post-apartheid South Africa. This paper seeks to understand how youth at two South African tertiary institutions position themselves in relation to race and the apartheid past. Our data include four focus group interviews from two universities, one which can be described as historically ‘black’ and the other as historically ‘white’. Given the complex nature of the data, we elected to use a combination of corpus linguistics and discourse analysis as our methodological approach. We explore how words such as black, white, coloured, they, we, us and them feature in the interviews. Our analysis shows that the positioning by the interviewees reflects a complexity and ambivalence that is at times contradictory although several broader discourse patterns can be distilled. In particular, we argue, that all groups employ a range of discursive strategies so as to resist being positioned in the historical positions of ‘victim’ and ‘perpetrator’. Our paper reflects on these findings as well as what they offer us as we attempt to chart new discourses of the future.Department of HE and Training approved lis

    Correlates of children’s moderate and vigorous physical activity during weekdays and weekends

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    Background:Vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) may confer superior health benefits for children compared to moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA), but the correlates of MPA and VPA may differ. The study purpose was to investigate associations between selected enabling, predisposing, and demographic physical activity correlates, and MPA and VPA during weekdays and at weekends.Methods:Data were gathered from 175 children (aged 10 to 11 years). MPA and VPA were assessed using accelerometers. Correlates were measured at child and school levels. Multilevel analyses identified correlates that significantly predicted MPA and VPA.Results:Gender significantly predicted weekday MPA (P &lt; .001), and weekend MPA (P = .022) and VPA (P = .035). Weekday VPA was predicted by gender (P &lt; .001), indices of multiple deprivation score (P &lt; .003), BMI (P = .018), and school playground area (P = .046).Conclusions:Gender was the most significant correlate of MPA and VPA. Children most likely to engage in weekday VPA were boys with lower deprivation scores and BMI values, with access to larger playground areas.</jats:sec

    Twelve-month effects of a playground intervention on children\u27s morning and lunchtime recess physical activity levels

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    Background: Recess is an opportunity for children to engage in daily physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the 12-month effects of a playground intervention on children&rsquo;s moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) during morning and lunchtime recess. Methods: Four hundred and seventy children (232 boys, 238 girls) from 26 elementary schools participated in the study. Fifteen schools redesigned the playground environment using playground markings and physical structures. Eleven schools served as socioeconomic matched controls. Physical activity levels were quantified using heart rate and accelerometry at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months post-intervention. A 3-level (time, pupil, and school) multilevel analysis was used to determine the effects of the intervention across time on MVPA and VPA. Results: Positive yet nonsignificant intervention effects were found for MVPA and VPA during morning and lunchtime recess. Intervention children were more active during recess than control children. Interactions revealed that the intervention effect was stronger at 6 months than 12 months post-intervention. Conclusions: A playground markings and physical structures intervention had a positive effect on intervention children&rsquo;s morning and lunchtime MVPA and VPA when assessed using heart rate and accelerometry, but this effect is strongest 6-months post-intervention and decreased between 6 months and 12 months.<br /

    Variables associated with children's physical activity levels during recess: the A-CLASS project

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    BackgroundSchool recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in physically active behaviours. However, few studies have investigated what factors may influence children\u27s physical activity levels in this context. Such information may be important in the development and implementation of recess interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a range of recess variables and children\u27s sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity in this context.MethodsOne hundred and twenty-eight children (39% boys) aged 9-10 years old from 8 elementary schools had their physical activity levels observed during school recess using the System for Observing Children\u27s Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP). Playground variables data were also collected at this time. Multilevel prediction models identified variables that were significantly associated with children\u27s sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess.ResultsGirls engaged in 13.8% more sedentary activity and 8.2% less vigorous activity than boys during recess. Children with no equipment provision during recess engaged in more sedentary activity and less moderate activity than children provided with equipment. In addition, as play space per child increased, sedentary activity decreased and vigorous activity increased. Temperature was a significant negatively associated with vigorous activity.ConclusionsModifiable and unmodifiable factors were associated with children\u27s sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess. Providing portable equipment and specifying areas for activities that dominate the elementary school playground during recess may be two approaches to increase recess physical activity levels, though further research is needed to evaluate the short and long-term impact of such strategies.<br /
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